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Secular and Religious: Muslim Brotherhood (3)

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Like all organizations, after the death of its founder, it will take some time for a fierce struggle to establish a new leader. Hasan Banner is a founder of the Mu Brotherhood and has a very high personal charm. He is in place. At that time, although Mu Brothers will have a certain division, it will not affect the development of the entire Mu brotherhood. However, after the death of Banner, there will be the leadership of the Ministry of Special Affairs.

The Ministry of Special Affairs is a military organization. Although it belongs to the general training instructor, but Banna himself does not manage it personally, and this organization has been in a secret state in order to prevent being attacked. The members of the Mu Brothers rarely know this organization, special. The first generation of the Ministry of Affairs was Saleh Ashmawi. In 1947, he was appointed as a deputy trainer and his status rose rapidly. The second generation leader, Saneti, was a friend of Ashmawi and led him. The Special Affairs Department is like a dislocated wild horse, completely uncontrolled, creating violent incidents everywhere, assassinating government officials, and causing retaliation from the Egyptian government.

Any organization has radicals and peace factions. Even the United States has hawks and doves. After the death of Banner, Mu brothers will start to fight fiercely. The dovish leader Mustafa Mumin was expelled from the training bureau. Shimawei won, but his position is not strong.

As a result of the assassination of Nokrasi, the allegations of illegal arms holding to the Brotherhood, it is likely to lead to the dissolution of the Muslim Brotherhood. It is precisely at this time that the political situation in Egypt has changed, in the process of the Brotherhood of Egypt and the Waffle Party. Mu Brothers took advantage of the contradiction between King Farouk and Waffle. After the Waffle Party’s 1950 parliamentary election, Nahas dispatched the case of the Brotherhood from the military court to the civil court, while the case was being tried. It was discovered that the ambassadors of the United States, Britain, and France privately asked the Egyptian government to take the opportunity to completely disband the evidence of the Muslim Brotherhood and reverse the case. In the end, the court only blamed the assassination on individuals, and the brothers and brothers would bring back the support of the Chinese party. After the government’s martial law was abolished in 1951, the Mu Brotherhood Training Bureau immediately resumed its organization.

At this time, Mu brother will unexpectedly elect a new general trainer: Hassan Hudaibi, who graduated from the Egyptian Law School and is not very active in politics. He entered the law firm as a lawyer after graduation. And opened his own law firm in 1918. In 1925 he was appointed as a judge of the Circuit Court and gradually became the upper class of the judicial system. By 1949, Hassan Hudaibi had been appointed to the Supreme Court of Egypt and was the civil litigation department. Director, Appeal Court Adviser and Leader of the Judicial Inspectorate.

Hassan Hudai is deeply hated by violence and is not interested in politics. He has extensive social relations and has a high reputation in the society. He has a certain connection with the royal family. Hassan Hudaibi himself is Hasanban. The believer of Na’s appointing this person is a very good opportunity to mend the reputation of the Muslim Brotherhood, whose reputation has plummeted after the assassination. However, Hassan Hudai has no power in his own brotherhood and is in balance to consider electing him. The general trainer is completely in the realm of consideration, and he himself is very clear that the power of the Mu Brotherhood is not controlled by him, but the masters of the former dynasty.

At this time, Egypt has created another force: the officer, and since then the Egyptian parties have reached the same level.

The military forces came from the first Middle East war. Because of the first Middle East war, the Egyptian King Farouk and some Egyptian government officials, in the war, made war money, provided inferior arms, corruption problems, leading to the entire Egyptian political situation The free military officer organization led by Sadat launched a coup, ousted the king of Farouk, promoted his son Fouad to succeed the king, and a year later, abolished the king and established the republic.

Mu Brothers and the Free Officer Organization had a good relationship at the beginning. During the first Middle East War, Mu Brothers also sent three battalions of soldiers to support the war. The thoughts of the Mu Brotherhood were spread quickly in the Free Military Organization. Hasanban The important leaders of Na and the Brotherhood of the Brothers have deep friendship with Sadat, Nasser, and Najib.

After the Egyptian Revolution, Hu Debi, the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, personally visited President Najib and began the cooperation between the Mu Brotherhood and the Revolutionary Command Council. Unlike the Mu Brotherhood, which has decades of mass foundation in Egypt, The establishment of a free military officer organization is short-lived. It only relies on violence to seize power and has low social prestige. The free military officer organization urgently needs to find a deep social organization and cooperation. Therefore, after the success of the revolution, Egypt banned all political parties, and only allowed the Mu Brotherhood. And arranged members of the Mu Brotherhood to enter the cabinet.

However, there is a major disagreement between the Freedom Officer Organization and the Mu brothers: the Freedom Officer Organization wants to establish a secularized country, and the Mu Brotherhood is a country that wants to establish a unity of politics and religion. This fundamental disagreement makes these two organizations ultimately impossible to peace. Getting along, the differences between the two are especially manifested in the fact that Mu Brothers asked the Constitution to use Sharia as the sole source of legislation, but the Freedom Officer Organization firmly refused. Without the consent of the Revolutionary Steering Committee, Mu Brothers announced himself. The policy agenda has angered Nasser and the relationship has deteriorated sharply.

The relationship between Nasser and Mu brothers deteriorated, originating from the dispute between Nasser and Najib. Najib was the hero of the first Middle East war. He was prestigious and honorary. Nasser was the leader of the Freedom Officer Organization, the chairman of the Revolutionary Steering Committee, and the commander of the 1952 revolution. The real power was Nasser, but Na Djibouti was not willing to be embarrassed. In February 1954, Najib published a resignation letter, a large-scale demonstration broke out, and the army stood on the side of Najib. Nasser was forced to compromise with Najib and resumed his president. Position, but then Nasser went through a series of struggles to clear Najib supporters, and in March 1954 secretly underarm Najib.

The battle between Nasser and Najib caused a split within the Brotherhood, one of which was Ashmawi and his special affairs department supported Nasser, one was Hudby supporting Najib, and the other was assassinated Hudaibi. The supporter, the deputy commander of the Special Affairs Department, led Hudby to use this as an excuse to expel Saneti.

The final victory of Nasser led the Revolutionary Committee to start working on Hu Diby of the Mu brotherhood. In October 1954, when Nasser made a speech to the masses, he was shot eight times by a member who claimed to be a brother-in-law. But strangely, all the bullets did not hit Nasser, and Nasser was able to continue to deliver speeches. At this time, it was extremely embarrassing, because with the internal division of the Mu Brotherhood and the poor situation of the special affairs department, coupled with the dramatic assassination process, it was reminiscent of this is Nasser's self-directed performance.

Nassar liked to play this set. When the second Middle East broke out, it was also a speech by Nasser, and then the Egyptian military quickly took control of the Suez Canal.

The great repression of 1954, together with the demise of the Mu Brotherhood, greatly slammed the Brotherhood of the Muhammads. Almost all the high-level brothers were arrested. In 1954 and even three years after that, there was no Mu. The movement of the Brotherhood, the prison was overcrowded, and a large number of members of the Brotherhood were forced to carry out hard work.

In 1956, the Suez Canal War, because both the United States and the Soviet Union exerted pressure on Britain, the British government fell and was forced to withdraw. Nassar won the second Middle East war and destroyed the last remaining British power in Egypt. Egypt, but the entire Arab country has gained a high reputation. The Pan-Arabism advocated by the Free Officers Organization headed by Nassar has received strong support throughout the Middle East. The Muslim Brotherhood is almost forgotten. Under this premise, Nassa Seoul believes that the Muslim Brotherhood is no longer a threat, and has relaxed the suppression of the Brotherhood. At this time, some of the remaining members of the Mu brothers were united and saw the general trainer Hu Debi, who rebuilt the Mu brothers.

The era of great repression not only hit the Mu Brotherhood, but also alienated the Mu Brotherhood. During the great suppression period, an Islamic scholar named Qutb wrote two books that influenced today, "In the Shadow of the Qur'an" and "Road Signs". Advocating radicalism, which affects young Muslims who are still being held in view of the fact that these young people joined an organization called the 1965 regiment after they were released from prison, and it is this organization that rebuilt the Brotherhood. One of the main forces.

In 1965, the rapid expansion of the regiment led to the alert of Nasser. Nasser demanded that all the people who hold the book "The Road Sign" of Qutb are members of the Muhammad, and arrested all the main leaders of the 1965 regiment, military trials. The result was confirmed that the 1965 group did have a conspiracy to assassinate Nassar. Kutb, Hudaibi and others were sentenced to death and imprisoned hundreds. In 1966, Qutb and others were executed, and Hudaibi changed the sentence. Life imprisonment.

Qutb is worthy of mentioning. He is the thought leader of modern radical Islamism. He was tortured in prison, whipped, and finally executed. It catalyzed his image as a "victim". You can observe the fact that Jesus was tortured, crucified, and a series of Christian spreads. You can understand why Qutb is so high in radical Islamism. Christianity and Islam are definitely two sides of a mirror, and you More and more aware of Islam, more and more will agree with this.

Although the members of the re-incarcerated Mu brothers returned to the prison, the entire organization withstood the test. As all political organizations were purged, the members of the MPs in these prisons were treated with heroism, radical Islam. The doctrine requires a martyr, a martyr and a hero. The stupid Nasser gave the martyr a martyr and a hero. From then on, radical Islamism burned like a fire today.

The defeat of the third Middle East war in 1967, Nasser’s reputation and self-confidence were shattered. After the death of Nasser, Sadat succeeded. As Islamism has become higher and higher, Mu Brother will strongly oppose Israel and strongly anti-Nasser, Sa Dart wants to take advantage of this trend, so Sadat and Mu brothers reached a reconciliation and released members of the Mu brotherhood. Hudaibi participated in the reconstruction of the Mu Brotherhood. Due to his non-violent thoughts, Mu Brothers will be able to Student organizations, trade unions, civic organizations, parliaments, and government infiltrations. There is a Hudaibiism within the Mu brotherhood that is countered by radical Kuterism. In 1973, Hudaibi passed away, and there was no last words about the successor before his death. Taylor Massani was appointed as the new general trainer.

The era of Hudaibi is over.