Get answers and suggestions for various questions from here

Guo Jingyun, China Dragon is a god from the farming culture, Chinese dragon can be feathered to the sky, and the ancient deified insects are revived for the dragon merchant Zhou ritual head and tail double mouth dragon 禹 for the dragon


Chinese culture has been calculated from the Jianghan Dongting Plain and has a history of 5,000 years. Over the past 30 years, the Chinese archaeological community has basically revealed the origins of various cultures in the East Asian continent. The core is the worship of the gods and gods. In all directions, the dragons can be born and raised, and the human beings can communicate with the heavens through the king. This is the core of Chinese culture for 5,000 years. The so-called "Easy Learning" [Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism] [Scientific Thought] [Christian Thought] cannot be separated from the core of Chinese culture for 5,000 years. The practitioners are nothing but the core of the 5,000-year culture of Chinese culture.

Guo Jingyun: On the Source of Shenlong Image in Prehistoric Belief

Abstract: All images of human faith are derived from natural phenomena that can be observed. The image of worship is not from illusion, but the result of the deification of natural phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to compare the beliefs of various ancient cultures and to understand the natural sources of Chinese dragon images. According to the ancient cultural beliefs, the Semitic civilizations from ancient Egypt have the belief of magical snakes, but these snakes are the gods of Ketonius, representing the underground world, never rising into the sky and flying. This belief is in line with this belief. The natural essence of the snake. However, the dragons in China are completely different. They are gods, which are not in conformity with the nature of snakes, and are quite different from the images of zombies worshipped by other ancient civilizations. Therefore, it can be inferred that the image and the spirit of the Egyptian snake and the Chinese dragon are different, and the source of the image should be different. The two cannot be confused.

The author thinks that the image of the dragon comes from insects. The worship of dragons originates from farming culture, and insects have a profound impact on farming life. Farmers observe insects every day and find that they have the ability to feather. In nature, only insects can be transformed into a bird shape by snakes, and only insects can regenerate and ascend to heaven after being temporarily dead. Therefore, the ancients deified the insects, which is actually the image of the dragon and the source of worship. Shamanism in different regions has traces of insect deformation and feathering. Whether from archaeological materials or ancient literature, it can be found that Chinese ancestors do have a belief in insects. The ancient Egyptians also worshipped insects. In fact, the author believes that compared with the Egyptian zombies, the Chinese dragon may be more similar to the worship of the golden tortoise beetle. Although the Egyptian golden tortoise and the Chinese dragon worship are not related in terms of origin and development, the beliefs and symbolic meanings of the two are quite close.

This article compares the ancient shape of Chinese dragons with natural larvae and finds that many larvae have fake or tail thorns on their tails. The shape of the double mouth coincides with the styling characteristics of the ancient Chinese dragon. Especially in the Shang and Zhou ceremonies, the dragon shape of the double mouth at both ends is more and more visible everywhere. The head and tail are the characteristics of the larva. The farmer observes the insect and creates a mysterious concept according to its shape. The shape of the dragon's double mouth can be used to prove that the dragon's image is derived from the insect. At the end of this article, the author will focus on the story of Xia Wei and its name. Xia Wei's appearance is Xiaolong, whose name is "禹", which is exactly the same as "worm", so the dragon and the insect are the same. Xia Wei’s mythology also expresses the equality between larvae and dragons.

The text is as follows:

First, the preface .

The dragon is often seen as a symbol of Chinese culture. Since the Chinese literature, the dragon's image, diversity and all-encompassing ability have been repeatedly discussed in various mysterious records, mythological stories, philosophical theories, poems, prose, and historical and cultural studies. Among the traditional Chinese beasts, there are dinosaurs, tigers, tortoises, crows, rabbits, deer, horses, and other real animals in nature, but the image of the dragon seems to come entirely from magical imagination. As a cultural and mythological researcher, we know that all human imagination has its origins and has its original basis. People observe all the phenomena in nature, think about their laws, and then create the face and power of mysterious objects. The image of the dragon cannot be self-explanatory, and it must have its observable natural foundation. This is why scholars are constantly talking about it. This paper intends to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various key hypotheses through the research results of predecessors, and try to clarify the source of Shenlong. This article focuses on Chinese prehistoric cultural materials (mainly in Hongshan and three generations of culture). However, the worship of dragons is unique to Chinese ancestors, so this article will use other relevant materials of ancient civilizations as a comparison. There are many papers discussing the image of Shenlong. The arguments can be summarized into four hypotheses: snakes, astronomy, dinosaurs, and insects. This article intends to cut into these hypotheses and explore the essence of dragons.

Second, the assumption of the snake . The dragon's body is python and snake, so the most common view is that the image of the dragon is derived from the strange snake. But this can't solve a basic problem: the snakes in nature can't fly, they can only crawl and crawl; the dragons fly in the sky as gods. Creeping and flying are the opposite forms. If the dragon is used as a snake's deformation, it must be explained: Why does the snake, which does not have the dragon's most critical power, actually derive the imagination of the flying snake? If you observe the image of snakes worshipped by other ancient civilizations, you can easily find that these snake-going nations do not think that snakes have the ability to fly, nor do they regard snakes as gods in heaven. Among the many ancient civilizations, the most obvious snake civilization should belong to ancient Egypt . Since the previous dynasty, Cobra (Wadjet, Waji Te ) is the next (downstream of the Nile, that North Egypt) Egyptian symbol; a symbol of Egypt (Upper Nile, that Nanai and) are vulture (Nekhbet, Nai Kubei Special ), snakes and dragonflies represent the opposite of the upper one.

China also has a tradition of relatives of dragons and phoenixes, but dragons and phoenixes all fly in the sky, and Egypt's Wadjet is never considered to have flying ability.

After the reunification of Egypt and Egypt, the snake head vulture became a symbol of the protection of Pharaoh's theo, but it was taken as a combination of two sacred animals, not a single god. Even in mythology, vultures and cobras appear on their own and each has their own power. Among the glorious names of Pharaoh, there are two separate words of Wadjet and Nekhbet:


In addition to representing Lower Egypt, the gods of snakes are related to "land." The snakes in the Egyptian faith have been living underground and have never touched the sky. The snake snake blessed the harvest and protected the water source of the Nile in the mountains; the fierce snake swallowed the sun at night, with the intention of killing the gods (Ra, pull). In the multi-faith of Egypt, the cobra has several names: Wadjet, Renenut, Sata (Dizi), Mehen-ta (Hole). Renenut is the god of fertility and the god of the pharaoh. On the walls of various temples and tombs, the pattern of the cobra god is often seen (see the picture below):

In addition, the Nile River, which raises all things, is also a zombie in the protection of the water source in the mountains (see left). The son of the god of the gods Shu and the god of the wet god Tefnut, the god of the earth, Geb, is sometimes also painted as a snakehead man (see the picture below).

The ferocious Apop zombie is the king of the underground that attempts to destroy all creatures, preventing the sun god from ascending into the sky and raising a living. Therefore, whenever the night passes through the snake body, Ra God must be transformed into a cat to kill Apop (see the picture below).

Animals crawling on the ground are respected as earth gods rather than gods. The snake worship in ancient Egypt has no contradiction in biological form. Hebrew culture also has underground god snakes. In both Judaism and Christianity, snakes symbolize the magic of Ketonius (in the middle of the picture). In such beliefs, the squirming people do not have the ability to fly, and the snakes and birds are not of the same kind. But the Chinese dragon does not creep and fly, and in its shape, the dragon is almost a fixed composition in the cloud. (See the picture below: The Ming Dynasty's Ming Dynasty complements the group; the right picture of the right dragon in Leiyun, taken from the Ming Dynasty Wang Yuqi's map) It is clear that the Chinese dragon is neither like an Egyptian snake nor a Jewish or Christian snake. .

Before accepting Christianity, Islam or Buddhism, the dragons were often mentioned in the folk myths of the northern Eurasian nationality. These winged, or wingless, flying dragons may be closer to the source of the Chinese dragon. Although in the later development, these Qilong have some concepts of the underground magic snake of the Old Testament, but they were originally "Flying Dragons", so they are not involved in ancient Egyptian culture (see the picture below).

The air dragon and the god snake and the devil in the earth have quite significant differences in image and belief. It is difficult for us to regard the two as the same animal. Of course, the above comparison is still not enough to completely deny the relationship between Chinese dragons and snakes, but the worship of snakes is different from the worship of dragons. First, the civilization that worships the snake, its zombie shape is very realistic, and the source of the form is quite clear; and the dragon's strange shape is not like natural objects. Second, the civilization that worships snakes has never regarded snakes as gods. The gods of snakes are limited to the earth and the underground. The dragons—especially the Chinese dragons—are always on the sky.

Vladimir Propp (1895-1970) has carefully studied the worship of the gods and dragons of various civilizations, created a systematic interpretation of mythology, and achieved several important achievements, including also for Shenlong. Discussion [1]. However, Propp is not familiar with the Chinese ancestors' beliefs. He infers that all the dragons have evolved from snakes. The dragons that can fly are just the combination of snakes and birds. However, in the Chinese tradition, the dragon and the phoenix are independent and relative beasts, and there is no concept of the combination of snakes and birds. Moreover, no matter from shape or power, Chinese dragons are not like snakes in Egypt and Semitic culture. Perhaps the source of the image of the Chinese dragon is different from other civilizations such as Egypt, not from the deformation of the snake.

Third, the astronomical assumptions . At the beginning of the 19th century, scholars endlessly talked about the relationship between Tianlong and the sky. For example, German scholars proposed at the end of the nineteenth century that the image of the dragon was derived from the astronomical assumption [2]. This type of theory has been very popular and has several schools of disagreement. Some scholars regard the dragon as the structure of the star, such as the Oriental Canglong Qisu [3]; another scholar believes that the dragon represents the unknown part of the moon [4]. In addition, the Japanese dragon theory is also very popular. Many scholars regard the dragon as a Japanese god [5], and some of them think that the dragon's shape is related to the solar eclipse [6]. According to the author, although the dragon is related to the sky, the distribution of the stars is natural and scattered, and it is impossible to be the source of the dragon's image. Humans connect several stars, and imagine that there are various pictures in the sky. However, in the first place of imagination, people must have some kind of image base in their minds to project images on the arrangement of stars. The astronomical images of civilizations are different, and the projected constellations are also different. In other words, constellation images are the result of human observation and imagination, not origin. People project the known object topography as a constellation, rather than in turn treating the constellation as the image of the unknown. Although the dragon has a relationship with the sky (such as the East Palace Canglong), it is not appropriate to use the astrology as the origin of the dragon.

Fourth, the dinosaur assumption . The dinosaur hypothesis was first proposed by the German scholar W. Bolsche [7]. Mr. W. Bolsche knew that dinosaurs were extinct long before humans were born, and that human beings could not see living dinosaurs. However, those who hold this view believe that the ancients saw the dinosaur skeleton in the soil and derived the image of the dragon. Although the dinosaur hypothesis is quite far-fetched, some scholars agree with this. In this regard, Professor Propp has put forward a very strong rebuttal of evidence. He collected a variety of historical dragons and analyzed large, complex dragon figures that resembled dinosaurs and found that they appeared quite late. The image of the dragon has evolved over thousands of years, and it has become a complex monster that is now seen. The early dragon gods were simple in shape, small in shape, and not like dinosaurs [8].

The development of the appearance of the Chinese Shenlong is also in line with Propp's observation. The image of the early Chinese dragon was small and simple, such as the Jade Dragon of the Red Mountain culture in the late Neolithic Age around 3500 BC; the dragon shape on the Taosi culture pottery around 2000 BC; or the dragon shape on the bronze ware of the Yin Shang period. Yulong with the woman's tomb. These early dragon shapes are not only small in size, but also in shape, which is obviously not like a dinosaur. And in terms of shape alone, the dragons of Hongshan and Yinshang are not like snakes. Then, which kind of animal can make the ancient Chinese pay such attention, and then form a long-standing and vast tradition of worship?

Hongshan Yulong Tao Temple pottery plate on the dragon figure woman good tomb unearthed Yulong Yin Shang bronze on the dragon

5. Insect hypothesis. This is said by the Siberian archaeologist Professor Alkin. After studying the so-called "pig dragon" in Hongshan culture, Alking inferred that the image of "Pig Dragon" in Hongshan has nothing to do with pigs, but from the observation of larvae by the ancients.

Professor Alkin collaborated with entomologists to confirm that these "pig dragons" are actually larvae of insects such as the insects of the family Tentheredinoidea, Scarabaeidae. He further speculated that the source of Yin Shang Yulong's appearance should be the same as that of "Pig Dragon" [9]. The author believes that Mr. Alkin's discovery is an important breakthrough, not only to help understand the spirit of the Red Mountain culture, but also to provide a general explanation for the source of the Chinese dragon.

In the following, the author will present several pieces of evidence to demonstrate again the possibility that the dragon is derived from insects. Mr. Alkin's comparison chart:

(1) The relationship between insects and farming life . Modern urban people have limited opportunities and types of exposure to insects. Obviously, they do not pay much attention to common insects such as cockroaches, flies, and mosquitoes, let alone derogate them into objects of worship. However, for residents who live in rural areas for a long time, all kinds of insects are an integral part of their daily experience. Young children who grow up in the countryside run on the grass with a net of insects. They naturally learn to identify, capture, observe, and collect many insects in their environment, or keep their insects in cages and record their life history. "Poetry" 曰: "喓喓草虫,趯趯阜螽" [10]. The author of this poem depicts his observation of agriculture and meadow life. The importance of insects to farmers is more than that of beasts. Rural residents have a much richer understanding of insects than other birds and beasts. Farmers will not despise small insects and never ignore their existence.

Different ethnic groups engaged in forest hunting, grassland husbandry, and farming have different animals. The life of the hunter is in harmony with the beast. Since the Paleolithic Age, hunters have observed the beasts, studying their habits and their ability to worship the beasts. But the life of the peasants is far from the beasts. From farming to all the farming things in Shibuya, there is no shortage of worms. In the meantime, there may be beasts (such as wild boars) invading the idyllic villages, but the effects of insects on farming day after day are definitely more than wild animals. Insects have both positive and negative effects on agriculture: the benefits are mainly key "insects", spreading pollen to help the results; and "insects" - the Chinese ancestors of the Neolithic era have begun to use silk textiles. However, farmers also know the murders caused by insects such as insects [11], insects [12], and disasters [13]. The leaf bee and the golden tortoise beetle mentioned by Professor Alkin also have a significant impact on agriculture. Leaf bees (or saw bees) are very harmful to plants. These insects eat leaves and seedlings of plants. Female adults can saw the leaf tissue like a saw, stretch the leaf and make a capsule. Insects) to lay eggs. The larva eats both the light and the flesh, and also eats the heart of the seedling. Before the phlegm, the leaf will be rolled into the clam shell [14]. The chafers live in the loam or the dung, so not only the farmers who farmed the land contacted the beetles, but also the people engaged in animal husbandry knew them.

If you only discuss the relationship between Hongshan "pig dragon" and insects, Mr. Alkin's contrast figure can be fully explained. However, Hongshan culture is not only a "pig dragon", but also other dragon-shaped jade. Outside Hongshan, Zhongyuan and Jiangnan have their own dragons. The worship of the dragon symbolizes the focus of the farming culture, because the life of the farmer is full of insects such as beetles, moths, butterflies, flies, bees, etc., all over the earth and in the sky. People who are in the farming culture are familiar with all kinds of insects, and naturally they will pay attention to insects and give them a deified shape. We know that the Chinese ancestors will make the shape of larvae and adults such as cockroaches and silkworms. The source of the dragon's styling should also belong to the same series of deified insects. If we look at the Zerg faced by the ancients, we can find many "small dragons" such as:



Snakes have no claws, while dragons and insects have claws; snakes have no horns, while dragons of the Central Plains culture and most insects have heads (see the picture below). If scrutinize head butterfly (figure below), we can see quite strange faucet; and see damselflies (dragonfly) larvae (lower right), there is a on the Shang and Zhou bronzes Kuilong !

In a word, the image of the dragon is not only similar to the insects in nature, but also derived from the farming culture that is familiar with insects.

However, the similarity and familiarity are not enough to confirm the source of worship of the ancients. The key point is that the insect has the core power of the dragon, that is, it can be feathered. In this respect, the large animals in nature are not as good as the ever-changing bugs, so that people not only worship, but also deify them.

(2) The ideal of emergence, ascension and regeneration.

The image of the dragon is the body of the snake, but it has the ability to fly. In nature, only insects can fly from the soil to the sky, and the snakes turn into birds. Farmers observe these "small dragons" every day, and have long discovered that the insects have temporarily died, regenerated, and become the life course of birds and butterflies. The ancients knew that the insect dragon had the ability to emerge and ascend to heaven. In the face of these animals that can be degenerated (infested), the body is small but has great power and naturally produces awe.

Since ancient times, the dragon's belief has been related to the ideal of regenerating feathers. In the Chinese tradition, the dragon is the introducer who takes the saint to the heavens. Sima Qian described the story of the Yellow Emperor riding the dragon in the "Historical Records of the Han Dynasty": "The Yellow Emperor took the first mountain copper, and the Ding was placed under the Jingshan. The Ding was completed, and the dragon was squatting under the Yellow Emperor. The Yellow Emperor was riding on the horse. The more than seventy people, the dragon is up.... The people look up to the Yellow Emperor both heaven..." [15].

Since ancient times, the dragon has been a symbol of the Holy Immortal. Since the prehistoric era, this kind of faith has always existed in the Chinese culture. After the Han Dynasty, it even flowed into Chinese Buddhism, so that the Buddhist Lohan also traveled as a dragon to the heavens. In fact, in nature, unfeathered larvae can also fly. I often see caterpillars spit out the insects and hang in the air. Because the silk is very thin, it can't be seen without scrutiny. These small insects hang in the wind and feel like the dragon is flying in the sky. The ancient literature also mentions the flying dragonfly, which is called "蜎", as opposed to the worm. "Guiguzi·揣篇", ​​"On Balance, Qi Shi", "Bao Puzi·Ren Ming" all said: "蜎飞, creeping" [16]. “蜎” can be pretending to be “翾”[17], not only because the pronunciation is the same, but also in meaning.

Many of the images revered by the ancients did not come from illusory fantasy, but the result of detailed observation and deification of nature. If the dragon is treated as a snake, it is difficult to explain why it has a crucial ascension. The civilization that worships snakes never regards the snake as the god of heaven, just as the ancient Egyptian snake god does not fly. However, if the dragon is regarded as a deified insect, the relationship between the dragon and the sky is clear.

In contrast to the beliefs of ancient Egyptians and Chinese ancestors, the author believes that: compared with the analogy of Egyptian snakes, Chinese dragons may actually be closer to another object of worship in the ancient Egyptian faith, the Scarabaeus sacer beetle. The beetle lived in a cave, and was made into a dung pill (or "staple pill") for food in the hole, and the egg was produced in the dung or corpse. The larva grows in the body and is flying.

The golden tortoise of ancient Egypt, whose name is read as hepri, the meaning of hepri can be translated as "potential energy", expressing the potential energy of the sun and the resurrection of the dead. The Egyptians made a lot of hepri used as a talisman with gold and precious stones. The more important function of hepri is expressed in the funeral beliefs. The ancient Egyptians put a statue of a tortoise beetle on the mummy's heart. The chest position of the coffin is often made into a pattern of golden tortoise wings. This means that the deceased will rely on the ability of the god to live on its own to reach the realm of eternal life. In Egyptian terms, it is “become hepri”.

According to the archaeological excavation of Hongshan, the dragon-shaped jade was also placed on the chest of the dead. Although the relationship between the Egyptian faith and the Red Mountain faith is minimal, the author believes that the two beliefs here are the same. The purpose is to pray for the blessing of the gods, and hope to gain the ability to regenerate by learning the emergence of insects. Professor Alkin believes that the jade dragon unearthed from the Yinxu Women's Tomb has some characteristics, which are only available to the golden larvae [18]. This observation is worthy of attention. Perhaps it is the golden larvae that live in the corpse, feed on the carrion, and then rise to the sky, so that the ancients believe that the flying beetles will bring the soul of the deceased to the sky.

"Zhuangzi Geng Sangchu" has a saying: "The only insects can be worms, and the worms can be heaven." The ability of the worms is connected with the sky. The interpretation of this sentence by Cheng Xuanying specifically refers to the golden turtle, which means: "Birds fly beasts, can also be worms; spiderwebs, pills can, can also be" [19]. Although this language has always had different interpretations, the most basic point is that there is a relationship between "worm" and "day" that cannot be ignored. In "Da Dai Li Ji Yi Ben Ming", the concept of using insects as the spirit is more obvious: "There are three hundred and sixty feathers, and the phoenix is ​​fearful; the hairy insects are three hundred and sixty, and the unicorns are afraid. There are three hundred and sixty worms, and the tortoises are fearful; the scaled worms are three hundred and sixty, while the dragons are fearful; the naked worms are three hundred and sixty, and the saints are afraid of long [20].

The phoenix, the unicorn, the tortoise, and the dragon are all sacred animals with the nature of the gods. "Book of Rites ‧ Li Yun" cloud: "What is the four spirits? Lin, phoenix, turtle, dragon and the four spirits" [21]. Their status is equivalent to the saint. According to the previous description of "Easy Life", the foundations of the four spirits and saints are called "worms." The concept of the Han Dynasty is indeed quite interesting, and its foundation should be rooted in the more ancient "worm belief." The worship of worms is gradually augmented and deified over time, and this historical process covers two trends. First, in the process of multicultural integration, Chinese civilization has absorbed the worship of tigers, sheep, deer and other beasts by various ethnic groups, which has affected the appearance of Shenlong, and has separated from the primitive and simple features, but has conceived several different ethnic groups. The core belief features evolved from the early recognizable dragon shape into a beast that is not found in nature. In addition, due to the worship of the dragon's great feathering power, the dragon shape made by the ancients has become larger and larger.

If further contrasts with the ancient Egyptian hepri, the pattern of hepri has undergone a similar evolution in the course of history. On the one hand, although there are many small hepri enamels used as amulets, there are also huge shapes like the hepri beetle statues in the Karnak temple. In addition, the appearance of hepri, in addition to the realistic tortoise beetle, also gradually integrated the characteristics of 神[22] (because of the Egyptians as the sun god), cattle (the gods), vultures (the goddess, bless the Pharaoh theocratic) and other animal characteristics Morphology. After the worship of hepri was personalized, it even produced the shape of the human beetle.

In Egyptian gods, hepri or simply written as, or simplification written as: [

], the qualifier of this word is the personality morpheme. The author believes that there are two far-reaching insect worships in the world, namely Hepri of Egypt and Dragon of China. The origins of these two kinds of worship are not related to development, but their concepts are quite similar.

(3) Insect worship and shaman culture . In the rituals of shamanism, the image of insects has a key role. For example, the Buryat in Baikal, the wizards of the sorcerer, the singer will be regarded as the incarnation of the wasp; the Evans will regard the scorpion as an insect to assist the sorcerer. In the entire Eurasian shaman culture, cockroaches are a kind of insects that are highly valued. It is both water and sky, which is also a feature of the dragon. In addition, the North Asian Yakut people also have insect worship; in the Americas, bees, crickets, sparrow moths, etc. are all traditional worship objects of the aborigines. The ancient Romans were influenced by Egypt and also wore beetle-shaped amulets. In fact, the ancient Egyptians not only worship the scarab but also the bees. In Pharaoh's glorious name, the bee is one of the symbols of Lower Egypt, while the Upper Egypt is represented by the relative sedge, writing [

]. At the same time, Lower Egypt also regards bees as mothers, but research in this area is still insufficient. Hinduism also has insect images, such as the goddess Chandi, which can be transformed into insects in flowers. In the Russian folk tradition, pray for ladybugs to ascend to heaven, and give food to what kind of food, perhaps the remains of ancient beliefs.

Mr. Alkin has collected many relevant examples in the shamanic culture of Siberia [23]. He found: "The concept of insects and larvae can be linked to the spirit and body of the people, in ancient Chinese, Turkic, Finnish-Ugol, especially Tunguska-Manchu (Orochi, Naa, Neve) He) and the slaves can see it [24]. Mr. Alkin believes that the image of insects is related to embryos [25], although the author is more concerned with the belief in reproduction, but also believes that this is not without foundation. "Poetry, Guofeng, Zhounan": "螽斯羽, 揖揖兮. Yier children, 蛰蛰兮" [26]. It is obvious that insects can symbolize embryos in Chinese culture. The worship of Chinese ancestors on silkworms covers three concepts: feathering, silkworm, and silkworm . In the Hongshan jade, there is both the shape of the silkworm mother and the silkworm cocoon found in the palm of the tomb of the tomb (below left). In the late Western Zhou Dynasty, the Tomb of the Shu Kingdom also has a lot of silkworms (below the middle picture) and other insect-shaped jade (pictured below).



The silkworm-shaped and worm-shaped jade articles of the tomb of the Shu Kingdom are arranged as contiguous beads and placed on the body of the deceased. In other words, jade silkworm has been an important funerary object since the Neolithic Age, and this tradition still exists until the Qing Dynasty. As far as the image of silkworms is concerned, the symbol of embryonic birth is secondary, and the emergence of feather regeneration is its core concept. Even if it is an embryo, it refers to the unusual birth of the descendants, but the resurrection of the deceased, or the heroic life of the hero, that is, the "hyun", or the so-called "fairy" in the inner school. The worship of dragons by other ancient civilizations also covers the concept of regeneration and the birth of God. For example, in the mysterious ceremony of Maya, the dragon represents the mother's belly, and the process of the ceremony from the dragon's belly is regarded as the sacred regeneration, which is the derivative of the hero Superman [27].

It is also an important insect since the Neolithic Age in China. Born in the tree, living in the soil, feeding on the roots of the tree, and rising to the sky a few years later. Therefore, the jade is often used as a shackle to be placed in the mouth of the deceased, and he is expected to use his power to ascend to heaven. In the Hongshan culture, crickets, silkworms and dragons are all similar in shape, representing the same series of insect worship. However, in the later development, insects such as silkworms and crickets retained the original prototype, and the dragon first covered the image of all insects, and then incorporated into the characteristics of his species, becoming another magical appearance.

Mr. Alkin believes that the shape of the crown of the Korean Silla also reveals the belief that the ancient Koreans’ shaman beliefs are deeply planted with larvae. The nephrite pendant on the golden branch of the Silla Crown (called Jade and Quyu in Japanese mythology and archaeology) is a larval statue that is twisted into a C shape [28]. If the Chinese dragon originates from the sorcerer's (or shaman) culture of the ancestors, then from the insect worship of other shaman cultures in East Asia, it may be possible to find a relationship with which they inherit and influence each other.

In a word, insects are important objects of worship in different shaman cultures, representing three interrelated concepts such as feather regeneration, miraculous deformation, and embryonic growth. The origin of the Chinese dragon should belong to the same kind of worship object, but the late dragon has gradually sublimated from the worms in the prehistoric witchcraft culture, and produced the later Shenlong belief.

(4) The shape of the double mouth . The larvae in nature also have a characteristic: many larvae have fangs with false heads or tail thorns on the tail, such as wasps, crickets, many moths (including mulberry moths), beetles, etc., all have obvious tail spurs. .




The head can be seen before, and the canine can be seen later (bottom left); the other larva has the head and tail (bottom right).


The shape of this double mouth can be seen in the shape of the prehistoric dragon. There are canines on the tail of the larvae in nature (below left), similar to the shape of the Red Mountain double-body dragon (the lower right picture).




On the Shang and Zhou ceremonies, the double-headed dragons (four figures [29] on the lower left side), the two-headed dragons on the lower left side (the lower three figures [30] on the lower left side), and the tail ends are simplified as the tail spurs (the lower right side two pictures [31] ]) Wait for the shape of the dragon.

These three-generation rituals frequently appear as open-mouthed double dragons, two-tailed dragons, tail-dragons, paired dragons, and double dragons.

Seven, the conclusion . The author believes that all images of human faith can find a basis in natural phenomena. The image of worship is not from illusion, but the result of the deification of natural phenomena. This article attempts to understand the origin of the dragon from the four hypotheses of the Chinese dragon image: snakes, astronomy, dinosaurs, and insects. Compared with the beliefs of other ancient civilizations, it can be found that the Semitic civilization since ancient Egypt has the belief of magical snakes, but these snakes are the gods of Ketonius, representing the underground world, and never flying into the sky. In line with the nature of natural snakes. However, the Chinese dragon is completely different. The dragon is the god of the gods. It does not conform to the nature of the natural snake, nor is it like the image of a zombie worshipped by other ancient civilizations. Therefore, it can be inferred that the Egyptian snake and the Chinese dragon cannot be confused. Not only the image of the faith can be different from the divine power, but the source of the image should be different.

From the celestial assumption, although the dragon has a relationship with the astronomical image (such as the East Palace Canglong), the source of the dragon's image cannot be a heaven. The distribution of stars is naturally diffuse, and the star maps drawn by connecting a few stars are the result of people's observation of the phenomena observed by nature. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use the image of the dragon as the image of the dragon. The dinosaurs have long been denied by Professor Propp, and the negative arguments they hold are beyond doubt. The early dragon shape was small and simple, and the large and complex dragon map was formed after thousands of years of evolution. The image of the Chinese dragon is also developing.

This article explores through various aspects and concludes that the image of the dragon should be an insect. The worship of the dragon is derived from the farming culture, and the insects have a profound impact on the farming life. The influence of insects on the valley is often mentioned in the ancient literature. The farmer observed the insect and found that it had the ability to feather. In nature, only insects can be converted into birds by snakes, and only insects can die and regenerate. Therefore, the ancients deified the insects and formed the image of the dragon and the origin of worship. From the cultural comparison, in the shaman beliefs of different regions such as Europe and Asia, the insects have a key role, and they are also related to the transformation of the gods. Following the comparison of ancient civilizations such as China and Egypt, the author believes that the Chinese dragon is not similar to the Egyptian zombie, but more similar to the Egyptian worship of the golden tortoise beetle (hepri). There are two far-reaching insect worships in the world, the hepri of Egypt and the dragon of China. The origin and development of the two are not related, but their concepts are similar.

This article compares the ancient shape of the Chinese dragon with the natural larvae and finds that many larvae have fangs or tail thorns on the tail. The shape of the double mouth coincides with the styling characteristics of the ancient Chinese dragon, especially the shape of the double-mouth dragon that can be seen everywhere on the Shang and Zhou ceremonies. The shape of the head and tail are the characteristics of the larvae. The farmer observes the insects and creates a mysterious concept according to their natural form. The shape of the dragon's double mouth is enough to prove that the image of the dragon is derived from the insect's insights.

From the archaeological data and the ancient literature, it shows that the Chinese ancestors have the belief in insects. In the tradition of mythology, the shape of Xia Wei is Xiaolong, which is called the worm, so the dragon and the insect are the same. The story of Xia Wei and the name of "禹" also express the equality of larvae and dragons. (The source of this article is in The Original Text, 2010, No. 3, pp. 23-33)

[Editor's note] This article is selected from Guo Jingyun: "The God of Heaven and the Way of Heaven and Earth - the Origin of Witchcraft's Belief and Traditional Thoughts". Individual symbols and illustrations in the text cannot be added for technical reasons. If you are interested, please read the original text directly.

There is another famous ornament in the Shang and Zhou ceremonies, the Python pattern, which is actually a god made up of a pair of Snapdragons.

Some scholars believe that the quotation of the Shang Dynasty is from the early face of the Shijiahe River and the Longshan culture of bronze [1], and some scholars believe that it is the heritage of Liangzhu culture [2]. Although the author does not deny the relationship of the complementary influence of cultural exchanges, the interpretation of the cross-cultural connection to Liangzhu is obviously questionable in archaeology. The crepe pattern originated from the bronze civilization in the Central Plains of the Yangtze River, and it has a certain distance from the time and space of Liangzhu. The Liangzhu culture belongs to the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in terms of geographical scope. From the geographical point of view, it is far from the rivers and the Central Plains. There are mountains in the middle and the living environment is different. In the era, Liangzhu and the early merchants have a gap of about 500 years; social development The stages and the materials used in general are different. From the composition point of view, the structure of the enamel and the Liangzhu face is completely different. Simply put, the shape of the god of good devotion is the human figure of the whole body, and the hand is like a double-eyed circle (Fig. 80:2), while the Shang Dynasty The dragonfly is composed of Ssangyong.

Although the geographic extent of the origin of crepe lines is closely related to the distribution of Shijiahe culture, the relationship between Panlongcheng culture and Shijiahe is not doubtful, but they belong to different historical stages; and the author believes that the Shijiahe period The appearance of the gods is not produced locally, but should represent the spiritual culture of the Western Shanxi ethnic group (or the “three seedlings” mentioned in the literature). As for the worship and crepe of the insect dragon, it should be the spirit of the belief in the plain farming area. The relationship between the two is complicated and it is not appropriate to discuss it with the concept of “inheritance”. The point is that no matter how you look at it, the patterns of the crepe and the stone face of the Shijiahe River are not similar at all: the face on the stoneware of the Shijiahe River, although there are some enamel-shaped patterns, this is mainly the face of a certain god (Figure 8 10:1; sixty-nine; one three seven; two eight eight; two nine nine; two twenty-four); and the Shang Dynasty has no human form, is composed of two dragons (Figure 8) [3]. The different composition of these images should not be confused.

Figure 8 0 1. The god face of Shijiahe and Panlongcheng culture (according to the collection of Yugui in the National Palace Museum in Taipei); 2. The engraving on the jade articles of Liangzhu.

If we further discuss the similarities and differences between the two cultures, we can find that the early business - including the pattern of Panlong City, Erlitou, Erligang rituals, did not see the face of human face. In the Yin and Shang Dynasties, the civilization of cross-cultural areas was gradually formed. The farming plains, hunting mountains, war and grassland lifestyles became more and more mixed, and the images of different cultures were complemented and borrowed. The patterns that blended these different spiritual cultures gradually emerged. Until the middle and late Western Zhou Dynasty, in addition to increasing the trend of cultural mixing in various places, the process of personalization of beliefs can be seen. The combination of dragons and human figures gradually increases in the number of unearthed cultural relics (Figure 6-8; June 9:4); Most of them appear on jade, and the ornamentation of bronzes basically retains the uninhabited beast.

Figure VIII 1. The jade unearthed from the tomb of M31 in Jinhou in the late Western Zhou Dynasty; 2. The jade unearthed from the tomb of M113 in the late Western Zhou Dynasty; 3. The collection of the Imperial Palace in the late Western Zhou Dynasty; 4. The collection of jade in the late Western Zhou Dynasty Hey.

Returning to the crepe of the observing merchant civilization, its image does not contain human figures, and it is based on the image of the dragon and the beast. For example, the crepe pattern that Mr. Zhang Guangzhi calls is actually a half of the crepe; therefore, 饕餮 (or what he calls the “beast head figure”) is only the composition of the two dragons ; and he calls the “beast head pattern”. It is also a simplified two-dimensional composition (Fig. 82) [4].

Figure VIII is based on the type of Mr. Zhang Guangzhi's dragon and the head map.

Recently, many scholars have abandoned the word "饕餮" and chose to use "the animal face" as the name [5]. There are two rebuttals about this author. First, the word "饕餮" is the name of the pre-Qin people on the Shang and Zhou ceremonial ornamentation. Although it appeared in the literature of the Warring States period, the inheritance of the Warring States and the Shang and Zhou Dynasties is much closer than we are. We should not underestimate or deny the ancient language. . Second, the author collects all the bronze materials of the Shang Dynasty, confirming that the crepe patterns are paired dragon dragon patterns, and in the paired dragon composition, the 饕餮 is the structure of the two dragons to the head, the head and the head. Although the alienation of the composition of the Yin and Zhou Dynasties is quite rich, its core is inseparable from this structure.

Scholars have repeatedly re-determined the type of crepe, but since the crepe pattern is the same as the pattern of the paired dragons, the composition is nothing more than the relative composition of the head, the head, and the head.

Figure VIII. The crepe on the rituals collected in the history of the language.

The most common 饕餮 pattern is the opposite of the two dragons, which is also the composition of the model in the Yin and Shang Dynasties. For example, the collection of the head of the Yang dynasty in the history of the language: the head 2 (Fig. 8: R2074) [ 6]; Shanghai Museum collection of Shangbo 59 Ding Ding (Figure 8:1) [7], Ge Ding (Figure hundred thirteen) [8], milk nail pattern (Figure 84: 1) [9], map 187 words: Figure 187 (Fig. 8:3) [10], from 簋 (Figure VIII, see also Figure 6.3: 1-3); Taipei Imperial Palace collection of Rong Zun (Figure 8: 2) [11 ], Causeway (Figure 7:9: 4), etc., most of the bronzes of the Yin Shang period. These half-lengths are equivalent to the dragons on the rituals, and they are equivalent to the common dragon shape of the Yin Shang jade (Figure 8:2) [12]. The half-length of the flat-footed Beijing Imperial Palace Ding Ding and other Yinshang Ding Ding Ding is equivalent to the flat-shaped flat foot (Fig. 86) [13].

Figure VIII. The plaques of the Yin Shang period 1. The collection of the Shanghai Museum; 2. The collection of the National Palace Museum in Taipei.

Figure VIII 1. The Shanghai Museum collects the foot lines of the sacred nails in the Yin Shang period; 2. The Aurora Art Museum collects the Yulong in the Yin Shang period; 3. The Shanghai Museum collects the patterns of the Yin Shang period.

Figure VIII. Shanghai Museum collects the early days of the Western Zhou Dynasty.

Figure VIII Beijing Forbidden City collects the flat foot of the Yin Shang period.

Paired dragons with low mouths on bronze plaques, due to the narrow shape of the body, there are several kinds of deformed narrow structures, such as the dragon tail turn: erect 1, or erect the structure with the mouth: erect 饕餮, such as the 1400 tomb copper of the Houjiazhuang觚 (Fig. 8:3:3) [14]; Asian ugly, dragon 觚 (Fig. 8:1, 2) [15] and so on.

Figure VIII. The plaques of the Yin Shang period 1. The ugliness of the Shanghai Museum collection; 2. The dragon plaque collected by the Shanghai Museum; 3. The bronze plaque R1034 unearthed from the 1400 Tomb of the Houjiazhuang in the Yin Ruins.

The other type is Ssangyong's mouth-to-head relative, such as the bamboo raft in the Yin Shang period; the composition of the early Western Zhou dynasty square, Sichuan Ding, Net Ding, and Ding Ding :: Shuanglong (Figure 6:4-6) ; group dragon 簋 [16] and so on. The Shanghai Museum collects three layers of enamel bronze plaques from the Yin Shang period. The foot: Shuanglong 2, the waist is the double 夔 饕餮 饕餮 , , , , , , , , , ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( :1)[17].

Figure VIII Shanghai Museum collects three layers of enamel bronze plaques from the Yin Shang period.

Figure VIII. 1. The Shanghai Museum collects three layers of enamel bronze plaques from the Yin Shang period; 2 Shanghai Museum collects the Ding of the Yin Shang period.

The two eyes that are turned back are also one of the composition of the crepe (Fig. 6:7-9). The ~hz1 tripod is a typical crepe pattern with two heads and two heads facing each other, and the mouth line is the crepe of the double heads (Fig. 8:2) [18]

The author has collected hundreds of related examples from various museums and archaeological materials. Most of the artifacts can be classified into these common patterns; even if there are some special cases, they are not separated from the motif of the double beast. In the Yin and Shang Dynasties, the female figure is a combination of two types: its crepe is composed of two pairs of opposite-shaped double-mouthed dragons. The two large heads of the double dragons form the front and rear frontal double dragons, and the small dragons are small. The tail of the tail constitutes the side of the double dragon head 饕餮 ( (Figure 90) [19]. The 饕餮 structure of the medium-sized round tripod unearthed from the woman's tomb is also the same [20]

Figure IX. The shooting of the women in the Yin Shang period (the Shanghai Museum and the National Palace Museum in Taipei).

Judging from the structure of cockroaches, if you regard it as a beast pattern, you cannot answer the most basic question: Why does the animal face have no squatting part, and the nose is the lowermost part? This is because this is not the face of a beast, but the opposite side of the two dragons, their noses are opposite or merged, and the lower jaws of the two mouths are divided into left and right. Therefore, there is no difference between the 饕餮 and the pair of 夔 patterns, or the definition of the Henan Museum scholars, called “two dragons and the first line” . Li Ji has already pointed out that it is "animal face, from the nose to the left and right symmetrical half face, each half is a side animal grain view." [21] There are many scholars who regard 饕餮 as a double animal structure [22]. This view is undoubtedly accurate. Moreover, because the crepe pattern is also the deformation of the double-mouth dragon pattern, even though the composition of the early and middle stages of Panlong City has not yet been seen on the ritual instrument, however, from the development of the double-mouth dragon to the double dragon discussed above, we can infer that the 饕餮Shuanglong composition and disk Longcheng’s double-mouthed dragon and entangled sashes have long been associated with each other. The classification of the word "饕餮" used by the archaeological community in Erlitou hard ceramic ornamentation is supported by objective data. Since the shape of the skull is always inseparable from the double dragon dragon motif, it should not be called the animal face pattern.

Most of the crepe lines are composed of two dragons, but some dragons are also represented by Xiaolong, such as the Shang Dang 121 father Ding Ding in the Yin Shang period (Figure 9) [23] and many Yin Shang's crepe patterns (Figure August 1st; 82). Or two erected dragons on the left and right sides of the two main dragons. In other words, 饕餮 is a beast composed of one pair, two pairs, three pairs of dragons, and sticks to the characteristics of “double”. The most similar to the face of the gods is seen in the Yin and Zhou Dynasties, but a closer look reveals that this "God" is a goddess composed of four, six, and eight dragons. For example, the square 彝R2067 unearthed from the Yinxu ruins, the upper layer has a low-headed pair of dragons, and the lower layer has a god figure composed of four dragons, two of which are equivalent to dragons, two of which are erected, that is, when the dragon tail The dagger, the line of the mouth, is equivalent to the shape of a typical scorpion's double-mouthed mouth, and the left and right small hooks symbolize the lower lip and ankle of the two jaws (Fig. 9:1) [24]. The upper layer of the bamboo ~hz2 parent 戊方彝 has the upper head of the pair of dragons, the lower layer has the disintegrated 饕餮 pattern, the left and right two small dragonflies are used for dragon scorpion, the lower left and right have simplified claws, and the mouth is also with two mouths. The composition of the dragons merged (Figure 9: 2) [25]. It can be seen that the crepe pattern, like other pairs of dragon patterns, reveals the core concept of “double”.

Figure IX. Yin Shang Fang 彝饕餮 1. History Collection R2067; 2. Shanghai Museum collection of the father Fang Fang.

Figure IX. 1. The Western Zhou Fang Ding in the Luoyang Museum; 2. The Taipei National Palace Museum collects the bronze gongs in the early Western Zhou Dynasty.

Among the crepe lines on the Yin Zhou ritual, there are rare compositions omitting the body of Ssangyong. However, there are two erected dragons on the left and right sides of this ellipsis pattern, and the squat of each Snapdragon is also around the combined nose. For example, the Yin Ding period of the Yin Museum in Henan Collection [26], the Fang Ding and Ya Yu Ding unearthed from the Women's Tomb [27], and the Western Zhou Fang Ding in the Luoyang Museum (Fig. 9:1) [28], Shanghai Museum collection of the early Western Zhou Dynasty bronze gong [29] and so on. On the bronze plaque in the early Western Zhou Dynasty collection in the Forbidden City in Taipei, the foot pattern is a typical low-headed pair of scorpion dragons, while the waist pattern is a simplified squat of the dragon body, with two enamel symbols symbolizing the foot and the tail. Jiu San: 2) [30], other rituals can also see this type of "herbalized" shape (such as the reference picture 149; 158 to 661: 1-3, etc.), but this belongs to The deformed animal face is complementary to the enamel, not the basic pattern of the 饕餮 image.

Figure 1 4:1. Fang Ding

Figure 1 Wu Niang Ding of the Great Cemetery 1004 Yin Ruins.

In addition, in the sense, the body of the dragon is simplified and symbolized, and the head grows. This phenomenon represents the focus of the object of worship and the opening of its mouth. The crepe pattern and other pairs of dragon patterns also reveal the two core concepts of “double” and “mouth”. In other words, in addition to the double-mouthed dragon or double-twisted pattern, the crepe pattern is also a double-dragon pattern. According to the development process, Ssangyong is an object of worship that has evolved from the double-mouthed dragon. It is not a god but a god. This god is both a double dragon and a "饕餮". Although the two are different, they are the same.

The previous analysis of crepe has several inevitable features: the double-dragon structure, the head is particularly important, so that in the memory of future generations, only the head is ignored and the body is neglected, and the mouth must open. In addition, there is a convex nose shape between the double heads. What does the nose shape mean?


[1] Yuge engraved in the Forbidden City in Taipei, in Deng Shuping, "On the Shenzu Mask Jade", "East Asian Jade" Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1998, pp. 45-60. Because of the similar Yugui, which was unearthed from the Longshan Cultural Relics in two towns in Shandong Province, the two were designated as the rituals of Shandong Longshan culture, but it may be more appropriate to regard the influence of the Shijiahe civilization as a vein to Shandong. Edited by Jingzhou Museum, "Shijiahe Culture Jade", page 19, Figure II.

[2] For example, Lin Biao Naif, "What is the so-called crepe pattern", "Japanese archaeologists, Chinese archaeology research papers", Tokyo: Oriental Bookstore Press, 1990, pp. 162-183; LiXueqin. Liangzhu culture and the Shang dynastyTaotiemotif', in University of London (ed.). The Problem of Meaning inEarly ChineseRitual Bronzes, pp.56-66.

[3] Participate in the bronze rituals collected in the history of the language, participate in Li Ji, Wan Jiabao, "The Special Issue of Ancient Utensils Research", the fifth "Study on the Bronze Containers of the Yin Xuan Unearthed Parts", pp. 98-99, Illustrations thirty, thirty-one.

[4] Zhang Guangzhi, “Comprehensive Study of Bronze and Inscriptions in Shang and Zhou Dynasties”, Taipei: Institute of History and Language, Academia Sinica, 1973, pp. 134-153.

[5] For example, the recently published Ph.D. thesis of Mr. Yue Hongbin emphasizes the definition of “the animal face”. See Yue Hongbin, “Study on the Bronze Ritual Ceremony of the Yin Ruins”, Beijing: China Social Sciences Press, 2006.

[6] Collection of Historiography, Participation in Li Ji, Wan Jiabao, "The Special Issue of Ancient Utensils Research", the fifth "Study on the Bronze Vessels of the Yin Xuan Unearthed Parts", pp. 76-78; 98, Illustrated 30 :1;Graphic 叁贰; Wu Wu: 5a, b.

[7] Shanghai Museum Collection, Shen Chenfen, "Xia Shang Zhou Qing Bronze Research", Xia Shang, page 126-127, Figure 59.

[8] Shanghai Museum Collection, Shen Chenfen, "Xia Shang Zhou Qing Bronze Research", Xia Shang, page 116-117, Figure 5:4.

[9] Shanghai Museum Collection, Shen Chenfen, "Xia Shang Zhou Qing Bronze Research", Xia Shang, page 162-163, Figure VII.

[10] Shanghai Museum Collection, Shen Chenfen, “Xia Shang Zhou Qing Bronze Research”, Xia Shang, page 186-187, Figure 9〇.

[11] Collection of the National Palace Museum in Taipei, Shen Chenmei, "The Forbidden City Shang Dynasty Bronze Ceremony Catalogue", pp. 340-343, instrument number five five.

[12] Aurora Art Museum collection, according to photos provided by the museum.

[13] Beijing Forbidden City Bo Collection, edited by the Palace Museum, "The Forbidden City Bronze", page 111, Figure 86.

[14] Participate in Li Ji, "The Special Issue of Ancient Utensils Research", the first "Study on the Bronze Enamel Unearthed in Yin Xu", Li Ji Editor-in-Chief, Shi Yiru, Gao Gou to Edit, "Chinese Archaeological Reports·New Edited, Taipei: Institute of History and Language Studies, Central Research Institute, 1964, p. 74, Illustrated Twenty.

[15] Shanghai Museum Collection, Shen Chenfen, “Xia Shang Zhou Qing Bronze Research”, Xia Shang, page 230-231, Figure 112; 242-243, Figure 118.

[16] Collection of the Forbidden City in Beijing, edited by the Palace Museum, "The Forbidden City Bronze", page 137, Figure 119.

[17] Shanghai Museum Collection, Shen Chenfen, “Xia Shang Zhou Qing Bronze Research”, Xia Shang, 154-155, Figure VII; Page 157-158, Figure VII.

[18] Shanghai Museum Collection, Shen Chenfen, “Xia Shang Zhou Qing Bronze Research”, Xia Shang, 98-99, Figure 45.

[19] One of the Shanghai Museum and the National Palace Museum in Taipei, including Chen Peifen, Xia Shang Zhou Qing Bronze Research, Xia Shang, page 104-105, Figure 48; Chen Fangmei, "The Forbidden City Shang Dynasty Bronze Ceremony Catalogue", Pages 176-179, instrument number 14.

[20] Li Fuqiang et al., "Yin Ruins", p. 74, Figure 07.

[21] Li Ji, "The Special Issue of Ancient Utensils Research", the third "Study on the Bronze Enamel Unearthed from the Yin Ruins", Li Ji, Editor-in-Chief, Shi Yiru, Gao Gou, Editor, "Chinese Archaeological Reports, New Edition" , Taipei: Institute of History and Language, Academia Sinica, 1968, pt.XI.

[22] For example, J. Rawson. 'Late Shang bronze desing: Meaning and purpose' in University of London (ed.). The ProblemofMeaninginEarlyChineseRitualBronzes. University ofLondon, 1990, pp.67-95; Liu Dunyuan, "On the Symmetry Law of Bronze Animal Ornaments" , "Forbidden City Cultural Relics Monthly", 1995, No. 145, pp. 32-49; E. Childs-Johnson. 'The Ghost Head Mask and Metamorphic ShangImagery.' EarlyChina, Vol.XX, July 1996; Originally, "Pre-Commercial Bronze Tripod The animal attribute argument of the animal face pattern and so on.

[23] Shanghai Museum Collection, Shen Chenfen, “Xia Shang Zhou Qing Bronze Research”, Xia Shang, page 120-121, Figure Wuliu.

[24] Participation in Li Ji, Wan Jiabao, "Special Issues on the Study of Ancient Utensils", the fifth "Study on the Bronze Vessels of the Yin Xuan Unearthed Parts", pp. 63-64; 97, Fig. 29:2; Ban Yi, Wu Yi: 2.

[25] Shanghai Museum Collection, Shen Chenfen, “Xia Shang Zhou Qing Bronze Research”, Xia Shang, 328-329, Figure 159.

[26] Edited by the Henan Provincial Museum, "Selection of Bronze Ware in the Collection", Figure 26.

[27] Li Fuqiang et al., “Yin Ruins”, p. 71, Fig. 02; page 84, Fig. 19.

[28] According to the author's self-portrait photo.

[29] Chen Peifen, “Xia Shang Zhou Qing Bronze Research”, Western Zhou, 182-183, Figure 27.2.

[30] Collection of the National Palace Museum in Taipei, Sen. Chen Fangmei, “Special Exhibition of Shang and Qing Dynasties”, pp. 240-241, Figure 35.