Street people in London demanded that the government provide free vaccinations for refugees.
Today, more than 70 years after the birth of the polio vaccine, polio is almost extinct. We now say that this is a great achievement, but looking back at the situation faced by Salk and Sabin, I am afraid to promote the vaccine. The two also took great pressure. It is not unquestioned that the protection of Salk, the radicalization of Sabine or the uncertainty of the vaccine itself, whether it is the ridicule of high-ranking scholars or the hesitation of the next ordinary people, constitutes a challenge to the polio vaccine. Only the toughness of Salk and Sabin can us usher in a new world.
Since the emergence of the vaccine, the question has been accompanied by it, inseparable.
In the era of Edward Jenner, the objection of the vaccine came mainly from the fact that the Holy Life cannot be violated. In the late Middle Ages, religious forces were still in power. The clerics generally believed that disease was a tool for God to punish the original sin. It was concluded that any vaccination against (the smallpox) was a heresy, and there was a suspicion of "the gods" (1), and secular life was separated for a time. On the one hand, it is the religion of the tiger, and on the other hand, it is the obvious inoculation effect.
Religious meaning is of course not specific vaccination, but competition with the medical science of rationalism for the control of secular life (2), the fierce struggle between the two, from the British vaccination Acts (Vaccination Acts) changes in the past few decades You can get a glimpse of one or two.
In 1840, Jenner's acne method was published for more than 40 years. (3) The Puritan-led parliament promulgated the first vaccination law in British history. It is not a health law, but rather it shows The will to rule, in which the risk is huge to prohibit people from vaccinating against vaccinia; in 1853, the second "vaccination law" was promulgated, and the vaccination of vaccinia was announced free of charge; the third vaccination law 18 years later was radicalized, mandatory Parents vaccinate their children with vaccinia, otherwise they will face fines and even jail time. Is that all right? Not! The fight against vaccination never stopped, and even provoked violent protests, so that the vaccine law was revised again, and the conscience clause that has been retained so far has been born , that is, as long as the religious or moral principles cannot be observed, it is not subject to disciplinary action ( 4) This clause seems to be considered a spiritual pioneer (5) of the later " conscientious objector ".
In the 20th century, the religious forces were weak, although there were still people who refused to vaccinate with religious beliefs (such as Jehovah’s Witnesses), but they were classified as special believers. People in the new era have more reasons to resist vaccination. Behind what seems more rational is the group of magical dances.
Vaccine side effects are the best use of rumors, and the “vaccine harmfulness” that is currently circulating in the population is almost entirely derived from this. The most typical is the MMR, which causes autism . The rumor was concocted by former doctor Andrew Wakefield, who was deprived of medical treatment for data fraud, and when the academics were After rebuttable data to refute his remarks, Webster argued that he never said that MMR causes autism, but that MMR is related to autism. Such sophistry naturally makes the academic community angry, because it has caused the social panic and harmed the public interest. It has been pointed out that Webster's motivation for speech may stem from a conflict of interest (6).
Social and cultural resistance to vaccines is something that has emerged at a more recent stage. For example, when it comes to HPV vaccines, when it comes to asking how to get it, people have begun to express doubts about the vaccine and protested against the protests. The reason is ridiculous - HPV vaccine may encourage the emergence of female promiscuity (7)!
If the external factors cause the vaccine accident to be manageable, then the problem of the vaccine itself will be complicated. The first is the issue of product development.
Robert Koch tried to emulate Jenner and used tuberculin to make tuberculosis vaccine . When it was promoted, it caused serious consequences of tuberculosis infection and death. The master of the generation "not insured at night", ordinary people have reason Suspected of the reliability of the vaccine; Koch's student Adolf von Behring was also "planted" on the vaccine. Behring won the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901 for the invention of diphtheria antitoxin , but the second year It may be the first large-scale vaccine safety accident in human history. After the injection of contaminated diphtheria antitoxin, many children died, plus many cases of death due to anti-toxin allergy, for a time, vaccine safety. Becoming a hot topic and communicating as the strongest voice against the vaccine era (8).
Readers who have read an article in this column should remember that Solk's inactivated polio vaccine seeks a certain balance in "modulating virus life or death", so the production is extremely difficult, limited to the current technical level, very It is difficult to guarantee that no problems will occur. Sure enough, in 1955, had " Carter massacre (Cutter incident)", almost to the polio vaccine "is not born died before victory." Since the poliovirus in the vaccine was not properly inactivated and lacked the necessary testing systems and conditions , more than 70,000 people who received injections from Carter's laboratory products were infected with polio, resulting in a total of 200 people and 10 The consequences of death. To this end, Salk himself frankly "think of suicide" many years later (9).
Fortunately, in the second half of the 20th century, while the technology is gradually developing, the government's functions are also continuously strengthened. After the vaccine accidents of large and small, the vaccine safety system has been improved. Since 55 years, there have been few large-scale vaccine accidents. happened. In fact, there is no doubt that the vaccine has contributed to the development of human health and saved hundreds of millions of people. So far, there is no reliable data to prove that the vaccine will have a large-scale side effect on human beings, and it cannot be statistically insignificant. Orphans and question the entire industry.
Finally, a large-scale survey in the UK found that (10) people with high academic qualifications and good socioeconomic status were significantly associated with low vaccination rates.
- Bazin H. The Ethics of Vaccine Usage in Society: Lessons from the Past. Endeavour. 25 (3): 104–8.
- The background is that with the rise of scientism, religion begins to recede, and the dark medieval begins to meet the dawn.
- It is generally believed that Dr. Jenner’s “breeding” method was born in 1798.
- Porter D, Porter R. The Politics of Prevention; Anti-Vaccinationism and Public Health in 19th-Century England. Med. Hist. 32: 231–52.
- The actor of the movie "Blood Swords Ridge" is the conscientious objector, and the boxing champion Ali is also a conscientious objector.
- Berger A. Dispatches. MMR: What They Didn't Tell You The BMJ. 329 (7477): 1293.
- HPV Vaccine: The Science Behind The Controversy
- Lilienfield, DE. The First Pharmacoepidemiologic Investigations: National Drug Safety Policy in the United States, 1901–1902. Perspect. Biol. Med. 51 (2): 188–98.
- They should walk, Tsinghua University Press, 2015
- Pearce A, Law C, Elliman D et al. Factors Associated with Uptake of MMR and Use of Single Antigen Vaccines in a Contemporary UK Cohort: Prospective Cohort Study. BMJ. 336 (7647): 754–757.