I still remember that when I was in elementary school, I was on the same line with the 38th line (exposure age). The girl is called a fierce life. As soon as I cross the border, I am caught by a pen and occasionally with a pencil sharpener... So that the girl’s name has been forgotten, the word "38" is deep. Deeply printed in my mind. When I grew up, I realized that there was a sad history behind the 38th parallel.
The origin of the 38th parallel
Today, we will talk about our old neighbor, the Korean Peninsula. The book was picked up. In February 1945, when the World War II ended, the heads of the three countries of the United States, the Soviet Union and the United States gathered in Yalta, Crimea, and convened a Yalta meeting to resolve post-war peace and arrangements and lay the current world situation. The sphere of influence of the post-world. At the end of the three major national cakes, some people think of the Korean peninsula in the Far East, so the big countries rushed to the middle of the N38 ° line, the north and south divided the peninsula that few people care about. In fact, the initial meeting decided that the Korean Peninsula should be co-hosted by the United States, the Soviet Union, China (the Kuomintang government) and the United Kingdom. Only after the Kuomintang was busy with the civil war, the British people actually became the trustees of the United States, the Soviet Union and the North.
North and South agents compete for employment
As the United States allowed Japan to taste the tastes of "little boys" and "fat" and the Soviet Red Army swept the Kwantung Army in the fall of the autumn, Japan surrendered and World War II ended. The various parties on the Korean peninsula have returned to the motherland. In the north, there are Cao Zaizhi and the anti-union who are known as the "Gandhi of North Korea", and Kim Il Sung, which was cultivated by the Soviet Union. In the south, there are Jin Jiuhe who formed the government in exile in China. Li Chengyue, who has a background in studying in the United States. The result of the final competition for the job is well known. General Kim Il Sung dropped the nationalist Cao Zaizhi under the inspection of the Soviet Union; Li Chengyin assassinated Jin Jiu and packed himself into the father of South Korea.
Northern candidates: Cao Zaizhi and Kim Il Sung (like Jiang Kun?)
Southern candidates: Jin Jiu and Li Chengyin
Kim Il Sung
Kim Il Sung, formerly known as Kim Seung-jung, was born in a farmer's family in South Pyongan Province. He fled to China's Jilin with his father at the age of 13 and joined the Communist Party of China at the age of 19. He then served as the battalion commander in the Northeast Anti-Japanese Coalition. During this period he named Jin Yi. Star, later changed to Kim Il Sung. However, the name Jin Richeng was originally the name of Uncle Jin Chengzhu. Many people thought that Jin Chengzhu was renamed Kim Il Sung in order to improve his prestige and impersonate his uncle.
Putianbao Dajie is the heroic deed of Kim Il Sung, the great leader of the Korean people, and the book of the Korean history textbook. According to the report, on June 4, 1937, Kim Il Sung directed the guerrillas to attack the Japanese garrison of Putianbao in North Korea. In this battle, the anti-Japanese forces seized a light machine gun, six rifles, two pistols and hundreds of ammunition from the arsenal, killing two Japanese civilians (Japanese police daughter and restaurant owner Yugen Kosaburo). The battle and its prestige and influence have dealt a heavy blow to the Japanese aggressors and inspired the Korean people in their suffering with great spirit. However, some scholars have verified that the actions of the guerrillas also included kidnapping the North Koreans for hard work and kidnapping wealthy figures for ransom. In addition, the Japanese occupation government at the time had always treated this incident as a criminal case.
Boarding the throne of the DPRK
In 1945, Kim Il Sung returned to North Korea from the Soviet Union on a warship and established the Korean Workers' Party. Kim Il Sung was promoted by the Soviet Union as a hero of the war of resistance, so most people think that Kim Il Sung is an old veteran; and Kim Il Sung was only 33 years old, so he was questioned. And because of his many years of leaving his hometown, Kim’s language has been very poor at the time (Russian and Dongbei dialects are quite fluent), and special counseling is needed to deliver a speech to the North Korean masses. In order to ensure that Kim Il Sung’s leadership status was not questioned, the Soviet Union allowed Kim Il Sung to return to his hometown, continually packaged and advertised to smash rumors.
Li Chengyue’s people
At this time, the agents in the South were also supported by the United States. Li Chengyin was 37 years older than Kim Il Sung. Unlike Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Doctor Sun (Sun Dafu), Li Chengyin was a genuine PhD at Princeton University.
Americans are also happy to foster a pro-American who has been educated in the United States to achieve democracy in South Korea, although later Lee Seung-soo’s dictatorship and other Americans stunned.
North and South
As the United States and the Soviet Union continue to cultivate their own power, the US-Soviet Joint Commission is unable to reach an agreement on how to organize a unified election on the Korean Peninsula.
At this time, both the South and the North Korean people have set off a nationalist movement (including the "anti-trusteering" movement) and advocated the establishment of a unified political system of the Koreans.
With the outbreak of the first Berlin crisis, the wartime alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union has completely turned to the enemy under the Iron Curtain. Both the United States and the Soviet Union on the edge of the Cold War have absorbed lessons from Europe, so they let go of their own forces. The opposition parties in the scope were cleaned up, accelerating the pace of the founding of the South and the North respectively. In August and September 1948, the North and South Korea had established the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.
Illusion given by the United States
With the withdrawal of the hostile forces on the two sides of the peninsula in the Soviet Union and the United States in January 1950, the hostile sentiments on both sides of the peninsula ignited. At this time, there were no foreign troops on the Korean peninsula, and both the North and the South had wiped out each other. , the idea of unifying the peninsula.
At this time, US President Truman and Secretary of State Acheson Acheson made two consecutive speeches, which made Kim Il Sung feel that the United States would not interfere with the unification of the peninsula.
The Americans stated that the US defensive circle in the Pacific region has placed both Taiwan and South Korea outside the US defense.
Xiaojin thought: This suggests that it can no longer be obvious. Big Brother, I understand.
So after Kim Il Sung went to the Soviet Union to get Stalin’s approval, he immediately set about preparing for the war.
North-South contrast before the war
The area north of the 38th parallel is 57% of the total area of the Korean Peninsula. The population accounts for 40% of the total population. The southern area accounts for 43% of the total area and the population accounts for 60%.
In the northern part of the Korean peninsula, the Puppet Manchukuo, which was operated by Japan (in 1945, the GDP of Puppet Manchuria was the highest in Asia, surpassing Japan), there were a large number of industrial facilities, while the south was mainly agricultural.
Before the war, the industrial capacity of the South lags far behind the North. Even the power of the capital Seoul is transmitted by North Korea.
The reason why Marshal Jinda is confident against the South is also the overwhelming military superiority to the South. The comparison of military forces between North and South before the war: Force 2-1, Artillery 2-1, Machine Gun 7-1, Semi-automatic rifle 13-1 , tank 6.5-1, aircraft 6-1.
In addition, the North Korean side also has officers and men who have developed rich practical experience in China and the Soviet Union. Therefore, the strength of the North before the war is indeed unmatched by the southern army.
North Korea’s war is like a broken bamboo
In the early morning of June 25, 1950, Prime Minister Kim Il Sung of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea ordered the army to cross the 38th parallel and launched a sudden attack on the Republic of Korea.
In the face of the undeclared offensive, the South Korean army did not have the power to fight. Three days later, Seoul fell on June 27. At the time of retreat, Han’s high-level officials panicked and blew up the Han River Bridge and gave a large number of troops to North Korea, which quickly disintegrated the Korean army’s ability to resist. The North Korean army won the festival, and by the beginning of August, the South Korean National Defense Forces and the US troops rushing to participate in the war had been forced to retreat to Busan. At this time, the Korean People’s Army has occupied 90% of the land on the Korean Peninsula and 92% of the population. It should be pointed out that Kim Il Sung did not inform China of the detailed operational plan and the specific date of war, so the Chinese mainland, like the United States, did not know until the beginning of the war.
The Korean people’s army is like a bamboo
The United States changed its mind
In the face of the devastating offensive of the Korean People’s Army, the Americans were shocked: I am dizzy! So the previous statement was immediately invalidated. On June 26, US President Truman ordered the US Far East Air Force in Japan to assist South Korea in combat. On the 27th, he again ordered the US Seventh Fleet to enter the two ports of Keelung and Kaohsiung, patrolling the Taiwan Strait, preventing the People's Liberation Army from liberating Taiwan, and quickly in the Soviet Union. In the absence of the conspiracy of the United Nations, the resolution passed a resolution to gather the 15 countries' joint forces into the Korean battlefield. On September 15th, US military coach Mike Arthur Incheon landed and intercepted the North Korean army. After meeting with the Busan garrison, he regained Seoul on the 27th. MacArthur was stunned by the rapid victory, demanding that he pursued the chase and expelled communism from the entire Korean peninsula. On October 1, the first troops of South Korea crossed the 38th parallel into North Korea.
Jin Dashuai served
Seeing that the US military crossed the 38th parallel and reached Pyongyang, Kim Il Sung finally realized that the situation was serious. He regretted China’s previous disregard of China’s advice and self-confidence, and urgently sought help from China.
Therefore, Chairman Mao faced the situation of just building a country and being in a state of ruin. He urged the large number of volunteers who had formed a system in the spirit of internationalism to enter the DPRK and help North Korea resist the United Nations.
In the near future, Kim Il-sung’s repeated leadership issues and the Commander-in-Chief of the Volunteer Army, Peng Dehuai, were in dispute. Comrade Xiao Jin’s naive belief that the Volunteers were like the international column of the Spanish Civil War should be directed by him.
The result was told by the big brother of the Soviet Union that the army had to listen to Chinese comrades, and even the railways had to be controlled by Chinese comrades.
Commander General Peng thought, Xiaojin, you really don't know how many pounds you have. China has sacrificed blood for you. If it is not for the buddies to help you, you should be in exile in the northeast.
Cross the Yalu River and defeat the American Ambition Wolf
The process of resisting the US and aiding the DPRK must be familiar to me. The Chinese people paid a huge price for the DPRK. They played the US and the two coaches of the two armies, and emerged fighting heroes such as Qiu Shaoyun and Huang Jiguang. Even the chairman’s son was sacrificed on the battlefield. In fact, from October 25, 1950, when the Log Forces launched the first battle to the fifth battle on April 22 of the following year, the large-scale battle against the US aid and the DPRK ended in less than a year. After that, the two sides stopped and stopped to bargain for the armistice agreement, and even saw it back and forth for a stronghold. The famous Shangganling battle lasted for 43 days. In the area of 3.7 square kilometers, more than 2.3 million rounds of shells were fired. The soil on the ridge was blown out at least 3 meters on average. Both sides suffered heavy casualties. At the negotiating table, the two sides also started a contest. After the first negotiation, the representatives of the Chinese and North Koreans first sat on the high-facing chair in the south, leaving only the low-lying chairs facing the coalition, and the coalition protested. Ask for the same high chair. After the seat, the coalition representatives took out a small UN flag and set up at the negotiating table. This move was a surprise to the Chinese and North Korean side. The Chinese and North Korean side quickly set up a flag about 10 cm higher than the other side in the afternoon. The coalition forces erected a higher flag on the second day, and the two sides entered the competition for the height of the competition flag until the flags of both sides rose to the roof.
The heavy cost of the war finally allowed the two sides to sign the "Korean Armistice Agreement" at the Panmunjom on July 27, 1953. The agreement continued to be 38 degrees northward for the military demarcation line between North and South Korea. The Israeli side retreated 2 kilometers to establish a demilitarized zone. More than 8,000 volunteer prisoners of war returned to the motherland with the threat of the Kuomintang special service. In addition, 23 US troops and 1 British army chose to stay in China, and more than 180,000 volunteers and martyrs stayed on the Korean peninsula.
Volunteer prisoners returning to China
US military prisoner Wenneris and his Chinese family stay in China
Volunteer Martyrs Tomb
Reflection on war
Today, more than 50 years after the end of the war, the warring parties of that year recalled that the brutal war should have been thoughtful. The parties seemed to feel that they had won, and it seemed that no one actually got anything. The DPRK and the ROK returned to the original boundary line. South Korea did not sign the armistice agreement. The legal principle is still in a state of war. The war has caused the separation of millions of casualties and the separation of 10 million separated families. The sword is arrogant, but the same nation is regarded as an enemy. As the US military commander Clark said, "We have made a wrong war at the wrong time, the wrong place, and the wrong enemy." Both China and the United States have misjudged each other. The Americans thought that communism won the next goal of the Korean Peninsula, Japan, followed by Southeast Asia; China thought that Americans would use North Korea as a springboard to invade China like Japan. It must be said that both China and the United States have had an overreaction to the imaginary enemy. This is a war that should not have happened between China and the United States under the pressure of the Cold War between the East and the West in that era. It is a tragedy of an era. We played self-esteem, but also ran out of Taiwan because of the outbreak of the Korean War. The war ended today. The friendship between China and the DPRK with blood is also good and bad. North Korea smashed the Volunteers’ cemetery twice and the Golden Day after the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Korea. The book "China is our enemy", what kind of North Korea has been exchanged for our bloody sacrifice. Today, we can't help but reflect on who should pay for this war.
Today's Panmunjom confrontation
Sweep me and pay attention