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Metrical learning guide

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The target audience of this article is a friend who is interested in the law but cannot get started. I will outline the framework of the rhythm in a minimalist way, and try to reduce the memory of the readers. Finally, I will put out some exercises to consolidate them. In order to reduce the amount of memory, I will bold the places in the text that need to be remembered, and do not process the solution. (The things that need to be memorized are minimal, and most of the things can be derived. Of course, if you can recite the things that are derived, it is also very good.) As long as I read this article carefully, I believe that there will be a great deal of your rhythm learning. help.

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First, what is a metrical poem

Second, flat and rhyme

Third, the law and basic poetry

Fourth, advanced poetry

Fifth, the method of analyzing the metrics

Sixth, consolidation exercises

Seven, advanced reading bibliography


First, what is a metrical poem (this part can be understood, do not focus on memory)

The Chinese dialect has a tone, and the tone of the tone reciprocates to form a beautiful and beautiful music. The ancients found and used this musical beauty in poetry creation to form a certain paradigm (magic). The poetry created by this paradigm is called metrical poetry.

In terms of the number of words, the five words of each sentence are called "five words" and the seven words are called "seven words." One sentence is called the law poem, the four sentences are called quatrains, and there are rules.

In modern punctuation, a period is counted. But it does not apply to ancient poetry. "The Yellow River is far from the white clouds, and there is a lonely city Wanshan." The middle is a comma, but it counts as two sentences. Two sentences count together. The first sentence is a sentence and the second sentence is a sentence. Try the following example:

"Moonlight Reminiscence", Du Fu (five rhetoric poems)

The first joint: the drums break the line, the autumn is a geese.

Couplet: Dew from the white tonight, the month is the hometown Ming.

Necklace: There are brothers scattered, no family to ask dead.

Taillink: The length of the book is not up to date.

The rhythm of rhythm is about rhythm. Generally speaking, the words "2-2-1" (白日-依山-尽) or "2-1-2" (drive-den-guyuan), we collectively refer to "2-3". The seven words are "2-2-1-2" (two - Huang Wei - Ming - Cui Liu) or "2-2-2-1" (window containing - Xiling - Qianqiu - Snow), collectively referred to as "2- 2-3". In general, the center of gravity falls in the second half of each section. The so-called "one three three five, no matter two or four points clearly" is derived from this. No hurry, let's talk slowly later.

Second, flat and rhyme (only note the thickened place)

The ancients divided the Chinese characters into two categories, "flat" and "sui" according to their pronunciation. According to the habit of Mandarin, one sound and two sounds are flat, and three sounds are four sounds. Ancient sound is a bit more complicated than Mandarin, but it is not difficult. I have written a special article and I will not go into details here. If you can't remember so much, you can remember the plain language of Mandarin first.

How to determine tonal poetry? Www.zhihu.com

Rhyming is the soul of poetry, both ancient and modern. Most of the lyrics of the popular songs we listen to are also rhyming. However, the lyrics are slogan, and the ancient verses are usually made of flat water. Pingshui rhyme is based on ancient sounds and is quite different from spoken language. If you are interested, you can learn about Pingshui rhyme. In addition, the metrical poems are all flat rhymes, and can not be rhyming like the popular songs.

I am so old-fashioned, closed the ancient sound. A friend who knows how to do it may have to laugh out loud. The best way to learn more about the "old sounds" is of course to learn Chinese phonology. There are polyhedron's "Chinese Calligraphy Course for Middle Ages", Wan Xianchu or Huang Xiaoshan's "Phonology", and there are many scattered works by other netizens. The study of phonology is destined to be a long and relatively boring process. Without strong perseverance, it is very easy to quit halfway. If you can't learn, you don't have to force yourself.

Third, the law and basic poetry

Poetry 1: A, B, and B.

A: 仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping

C: Pingping Pingyi

Ding: Yan Pingping

Just remember the first sentence, which can be derived later.

In the case of a sentence and a sentence, it is necessary to conform to the law of "right". The law of "right" is "all the opposite . " Therefore, the sentence S is the total objection of the sentence. 仄仄平平仄→All the opposite [对]→平平平

The sentence S and the C sentence are not in the same union. We have to glue together one another. This is in line with the "sticky" principle. The so-called "sticky" rule is "three anti-five" , that is, the third word is the opposite of the fifth word, and the others are unchanged. Pingping 仄仄平→三反五反【粘】→ 平平平仄仄.

The C sentence and the Ding sentence are the same as the one sentence, which is also in line with the "right" rule.

This is again sticky, the rhythm of a poem comes out, we can also extend it, and continue on the basis of the sentence.


In this way, I can rank at the end of the universe, and the so-called law (long law) is like this. And smart, do you find the law: no matter how many rows, the sentence pattern will always be a cycle of A, B, and D. The law only has four sentences of A, B, and D, and the rhythm is not as difficult as we think.

Poetry 2: A, B, B, B, B, D.

A: 仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping

C: Pingping Pingyi

Ding: Yan Pingping

A: 仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping

C: Pingping Pingyi

Ding: Yan Pingping

Poetry 2 is an extension of poetry 1 and poetry 1 is a five-character quatrain. Poetry 2 is a five-word poem.

Poetry 3: Bingding B.

C: Pingping Pingyi

Ding: Yan Pingping

A: 仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping

We use the C sentence as the first sentence. According to the previous "sticky pair" rule, we will give four sentences and get Bingding B.

Poetry 4: Propylene, B-butylene, and B.

C: Pingping Pingyi

Ding: Yan Pingping

A: 仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping

C: Pingping Pingyi

Ding: Yan Pingping

A: 仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping

Extension of poetry 3

Poetry type 5: Ding Yi Bingding.

Ding: Yan Pingping

B: Pingping Yuping

C: Pingping Pingyi

Ding: Yan Pingping

Poetry type 5 is slightly different, Ding sentence [仄仄仄平平] as the first sentence, and its opposite should be a C sentence [Ping Ping Ping Yu], but before we talked, the metrical poem can only be a flat rhyme, a sentence The last word is awkward and unruly. So we found a similar sentence to the C sentence instead of the sentence, although there is no Ding and B sentence, although not the opposite of the word, but here can also be seen as generally in line with the "right" rule. The following sentences are not affected.

Poetry 6: Ding Bing Bing Bing Bing.

Ding: Yan Pingping

B: Pingping Yuping

C: Pingping Pingyi

Ding: Yan Pingping

A: 仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping

C: Pingping Pingyi

Ding: Yan Pingping

The extension of the poetry type 5.

Poetry 7: Ethylene B.

B: Pingping Yuping

Ding: Yan Pingping

A: 仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping

As the first sentence of the sentence, the opposite of it should be a sentence, but the rhyme of the sentence, so replace it with a sentence similar to a sentence. The following sentences are not affected.

Poetry type 8: Ethyl, ethyl, ethyl, and ethyl.

B: Pingping Yuping

Ding: Yan Pingping

A: 仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping

C: Pingping Pingyi

Ding: Yan Pingping

A: 仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping

The extension of the poetry type 7.

Summary: The basic poems are A, B, D, B, B, D, E, B, and E. Careful friends found out that the flats I gave were flat and flat, and everything was flat . The seven words only need to be flat before the front, and the front can be twisted.

A: 仄仄平平仄→平平仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping → Yu Pingping Pingping

C: Pingping Pingyi→仄仄平平平仄仄

Ding: 仄仄仄平平→平平仄仄仄平平

Various poems can also be filled in by the words.

Fourth, advanced poetry

A: 仄仄平平仄→平平仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping → Yu Pingping Pingping

C: Pingping Pingyi→仄仄平平平仄仄

Ding: 仄仄仄平平→平平仄仄仄平平

With the above rhymes and poems, everyone can write handwritten poems. But writing in accordance with this paradigm is too tight. And I said it at the beginning of the opening. The poetry pays attention to the rhythm. As long as the accent of the rhythm conforms to the rhythm, not all words must follow this shackle, so there is a "one three three, no two, four four six Distinguished, this sentence is to say seven words. In five words, it is "one or three, two or four distinct."



Summarized as the above picture, the two words on the left side of the vertical line are counted as seven words, not added, counted as five words. The place marked with green is relatively free and can be flat. Some Geshu books write these places as "medium."

However, the actual situation is more complicated than the above. If the first sentence of the sentence (in the case of five words, the same below) is ambiguous. [Pingping Yuping → Yuping Pingping] The flat on the left side is sandwiched between a pile of sputum. This situation is called solitude, and the singularity is 拗 (拗 is wrong, wrong). At this time, the third word can be changed to flat. [仄平仄仄平→仄平平仄平] The left side of the plane is not alone. B. This behavior of self-denial is called salvation.

The above is the general definition of solitude, but some people think that the third word of the sentence (five words) [A three] or the fourth word [A four] becomes 仄, also belongs to the solitude, but also let the third three save. In this way, a small B can save one, two, or even three of A, A, and B at the same time. (Some people disagree with this statement, thinking that A is not a jealousy, or a small embarrassment, no need to save).



In addition to this there is another kind of rescue. That is, C3 and C4 change Pingyi at the same time. Some people think that it is C3 to save C4, and some people think the opposite. I am more in favor of C III to save C. Because C III is relatively free.



What needs to be specially noted is that the third word of the last sentence of Ding can never be flat, otherwise the three ends of the sentence will become three flats.

Knowing this, the rhythm is almost the same. Other rhymes, confrontation, creation of artistic conception, etc., I believe that you have a high opinion. I won't go into details. Also attach a picture.



Fifth, the method of analyzing the metrics

"untitled"

Li Shangyin

It’s hard not to be difficult to meet each other.

Dongfeng is powerless and has a lot of flowers.

Spring silkworms go to the dead silk,

The wax torch began to dry in ash.

Xiaojing, but the cloud has changed,

The nightingale should feel the moonlight cold.

There is no way to go to Pengshan.

The Jade Bird is attentive to explore.

First, demonstrate a method of error and harmful analysis.

"It’s hard not to be difficult to meet each other. Dongfeng is powerless and full of flowers." The phase is a flat, seeing four sounds, when the sound is flat, it is difficult to be two sounds, not the ancient sounds... So these two sentences The flat is: Ping Ping Ping Ping Ping Ping, Ping Ping Ping Ping Ping Ping. So you analyzed the flatness of the whole poem. The next step is to compare with the basic poetry style, I guess you will get rid of it. Seeing that these are flat and embarrassing, not mad.

The correct method is: five words use the second five positioning method, seven words use the twenty seven positioning method. "It's hard to be difficult to meet when you meet." The second word is 仄, the seventh word is flat, that is, [pick up and close]. Then go to the four rules to find.

A: Pingping | 仄仄平平仄 [five words from the beginning of collection] [seven words flat up 仄]

B: 仄仄 | 平平仄仄平 [五言平起平收] [七言仄起起收]

C: 仄仄 | Ping Ping Ping 仄仄 [five words flat up 仄 】] [seven words 仄 仄 】]

Ding: Pingping | 仄仄仄平平[五言仄起起收][七言平起平收]

Found a sentence consistent. Then the poem of this poem is poetry 8: Ethylene, B, B, B.

B: 仄仄平平平

Ding: Ping Ping Ping Ping

A: Ping Ping Ping Ping Ping

B: 仄仄平平平

C: 仄仄平平平仄仄

Ding: Ping Ping Ping Ping

A: Ping Ping Ping Ping Ping

B: 仄仄平平平

Bring into the analysis, the box will not be flat.



Among them, "beyond" is the ancient sound word, it is 仄. Look at the ancients can be flat, read more. For the sake of reading, it is read as a sound. It can be seen that after learning the rhythm, many problems can be solved. Leave two thought questions.

1. Where does the jade person teach bragging, from the perspective of the law, how to read it well.

2, the body is not afraid of the broken bones, the bones are not afraid. From the perspective of the law, it is good.

The place where the box is drawn in the above picture is a place that can be flat. This poem is written very well.

Let's have another Li Shangyin's "Deng Le You Yuan"

To the late discomfort, drive to Guyuan.

The sunset is infinitely good, just near dusk.

According to the second-five positioning method, the evening and the right are all ambiguous, that is, the sentence "仄仄平平仄". This poem is poetry type 1: A, B, and D.

A: 仄仄平平仄

B: Pingping Yuping

C: Pingping Pingyi

Ding: Yan Pingping

Bring in analysis



Among them, not ancient can be flat, read as not much, here counted as 仄 (can also be considered as flat). The evening is the ancient sound word. Ancient original, faint can rhyme.

This first involves the rescue, the first sentence (a sentence) three or four words, the second sentence (sentence) the third word to save.

Sixth, consolidation exercises

Because there are many words in the ancient times, sometimes it will affect the judgment. Therefore, I specially selected some metrical poems for beginners who did not enter the sound word or even if they did not influence the judgment.

"Returning Hometown" He Zhizhang

Little and old, back home

No change in the sound of the country

Children don’t meet each other

Where do you come from?


"Liangzhou Ci" Wang Han

Grape wine night light cup

Want to drink immediately

Drunk lying in the sand field

Gulai battled several people back


"Gathering Meng Haoran's Guangling" Li Bai

The old man’s resignation of the Yellow Crane Tower

Fireworks in March, Yangzhou

Lonely sail far away

Only see the Yangtze River skyline


"Fengqiao Night Park" Zhang Ji

Moon falls over the sky

Jiang Feng fishing fire on the sleep

Hanshan Temple outside Gusu City

Half a night to the passenger ship


"Monthly Night" Liu Fangping

Deeper moonlight half-man

Beidou 阑南南斗斜

Knowing the spring warmth tonight

New green screen screen


"Red Cliff" Du Mu

Folding sand and iron is not sold

Since the grinding will be recognized

Dongfeng does not work with Zhou Lang

Tongque Spring Deep Lock II Joe


"Retirement" Du Mu

Lost rivers and lakes

Chu waist slender palm light

Ten years of Yangzhou dream

Winning the glory of the brothel


"Night Rain Sends North" Li Shangyin

Jun asked to return the period

Bashan night rain rises autumn pool

Why do you cut the western window candle?

But when it’s raining in the mountains


"Xi Xixing" Chen Tao

Swearing to sweep the Huns

Five thousand 貂 丧 丧

Poor and indefinite riverside bone

Still a deep dreamer


"渭城曲" Wang Wei

渭城朝雨浥轻尘

Guest house, green and blue, new

Advise Jun to make a glass of wine

West out of Yangguan, no reason


"Out of the Plug" Wang Changling

Qin Shiming, the time of the Han Dynasty

Wanli Long Marcher has not returned

But make the Dragon City fly in

Do not teach Huma Du Yinshan


"Qing Ping Tiao • Qi Yi" Li Bai

Cloud wants clothes to think of flowers

Spring breeze

If you don’t see the mountains

Will go to Yaotai Moon


"Denglou" Du Fu

Flower near the tall building hurts the heart

This is a difficult time

Jinjiang Spring is coming to heaven and earth

Yulei floating clouds become ancient and modern

The Arctic court will not change

Xishan thieves

Poor back to the temple

Talking about the day as a father

Seven, advanced reading bibliography

This article strives for simplicity (however, the actual writing is still relatively cumbersome), and the handling of many details is slightly simple and rude. After reading this article, readers can analyze the metrics of metrical poetry and try to create. As for the deeper theoretical knowledge, you can read the books of Mr. Wang Li, Qi Gong, and Zhang Zhongxing. We often say poetry and rhythm, and I actually only talk about poetry, because I understand poetry, and the lexical rhythm is not difficult to learn. Attach an advanced bibliography here.

1. Wang Li, "Poetry and Rhythm", "Chinese Poetics"

2, Qi Gong "Poetry and Sounds"

3. Zhang Zhongxing's "Poetry Reading and Writing"

4, Gao Xiaofang "Ancient Chinese" (many views of this article come from this book)

5, Ge Zai, "The Word Lin Zhengyun"

6, Xie Taofang "Tang and Song lexical correction"

7. Kuang Zhouyi's "Hurricane Words" (where the creation theory is very useful)