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Yong Zheng: A good emperor deliberately discredited by literati

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This article first appeared in the headline historical university hall and public history D school


Emperor Yongzheng was a very emperor in history, a emperor who was black and miserable by the Qing literati. On the surface, the literati are black because he is engaged in literary prisons and practiced cultural dictatorship. However, in fact, the literary prison is nothing but a reluctance to rectify the bureaucratic group.




The reason why the literati really hate and rectify is not to miss the Ming Dynasty and freedom of speech, but because several reforms of Yongzheng have benefited the people and the country, but they have actually touched their interests. The Tibetan poetry is only a literati. A means of soft resistance to ambiguity. Then, what did you do in the end, what is the resentment of the bureaucratic group?


First, the bureaucratic integration of the food, abolish the privilege of the bureaucratic group


The first reform of Yongzheng is that the bureaucrats are one and the same, that is, the literati officials with merits have to pay the same taxes to the people. This reform, perhaps in the face of a progressive tax system, may not seem like anything, but in a feudal society where intellectuals have privileges, it is tantamount to a blue sky. We must know that since the implementation of the imperial examination, the state has given intellectuals great privilege in order to show respect for intellectual talents. Among them, it is one of them that does not have to be like the people. Yongzheng’s move is a challenge to the millennium tradition and a challenge to the intellectual privilege.



You should know that the scope of the bureaucracy includes all officials, literary nostalgia who are famous but not official, and almost all of the ruling class. If you do this, it is equal to the ruling class of the entire empire (except the Manchu nobility). do? It is indeed this system that has caused great inequality in the Qing Dynasty. It should be known that with the prevalence of the imperial examinations, the Yi landlords gradually replaced the landlords of the sects and became the ruling class of China. As long as one person in the ordinary landlord was admitted to the fame, it was the one who got the chicken and the dog. Perhaps the official's embarrassment is insignificant, but its power can bring convenience to the entire family. Through various means of power and personal gain, an official himself is often the local landlord and the chief culprit of land acquisition. And his relatives, with his power, can also become one of the best in the locality. After they have money, they will send their children to study, receive a good education, and then take the fame to form a bureaucratic group.




Gradually, the entire court was controlled by this bureaucratic group linked by blood and teacher-student relationship. They not only greeted the rain in the political affairs, but also merged the land and mastered the main wealth of the society. But the irony is that they don't have to pay a penny to the imperial court, but the poor peasants have to pay a very heavy tax. This huge unfairness has led to social instability and threatened the continuation of the dynasty.

In order to solve this problem, Yongzheng directly declared war on all bureaucrats and asked them to turn over the taxes commensurate with their wealth, alleviating the financial pressure of the empire and the burden on the people. However, as soon as this order came out, almost all officials opposed it. Even the usual sinister appearances and the simple stream of life came out against it. Those corrupt officials who are opposed to it are understandable, can they be opposed to the Qing Dynasty? The reason for the clear flow opposition is not because of money, but because of the idea that there should be superior knowledge if there is knowledge. The Qingliu thinks that the scholars should be different from the ordinary people, and they should be higher than the ordinary people. If the bureaucrats are integrated, the scholars will be Not like ignorance without education. If the Middle Ages in Europe was caused by blood-related inequalities, ancient China was the inequality caused by knowledge.


In the literati's concept, if you have knowledge, you should enjoy the privilege, rule the ignorant people without culture, and the foolish people pay taxes and blame, and the scholars should be different from the fart people as elites. This concept has far-reaching implications and remains so today. A person with a lower culture and a person with a higher level of education are still unequal in personality.


Second, spread the acres into the mu, reduce the burden on the poor


Another major reform of Yongzheng is to spread the acres and cancel the head tax. This is another heavy bomb. Ding into the acres, the Dian Yin collected by the people in the tax will be distributed to the land bank in the land burden, greatly reducing the burden on the poor farmers.

We must know that the tax system in the early Qing Dynasty followed the Ming Dynasty. In addition to collecting the landbanks collected according to the amount of land, it also charged Dingyin, which is calculated according to the population. Ding Yin’s general meaning is that no matter if you are rich and poor, how many households there are? If you are a mouthful, you will pay a few dollars and collect taxes according to the number of people. This kind of head tax undoubtedly increases social inequality. Can the rich have the same cost as raising the eight children? The rich man paid the head tax of 8 people, but it was a slap in the face, no harm. The poor have paid these 8 yuan, but they really can't live.

The reform of Yongzheng directly abolished the head tax, and all of them will collect taxes according to the amount of land. This is a burden for the poor, but it harms the interests of the rich. Originally, it was only the tax of the landlord’s family who had no fame, but because of the bureaucratic integration of the grain at the same time, the result was equal to all of a sudden, and the wealthy bureaucrats lost two privileges. As a result, the literati are even more jealous of Yongzheng.



Third, open up the shackles and weaken the personal attachment relationship


If the first two items are only to promote social equity in the economy, then opening up a stipulation is to promote equality for all and weaken the relationship of personal attachment.


Before Yongzheng, the law has always divided the people into good people and untouchables. The good people theoretically have the freedom of being a person and can freely engage in occupations. The untouchables were qualified from the beginning and never got rid of their identity. In the five years of Emperor Yongzheng, the emperor pointed out that in order to change the customs of the wind, the music of Shanxi, the inhabitants of Zhejiang, the companionship of Huizhou Prefecture, and the servants of the servants of Ningguofu should be abolished, so that they would become good people, according to Yongzheng’s own words: To open up the good fortune, to be prosperous, to avoid being filthy for life, involving the descendants." The examples cited by Yongzheng are all local people. They have no personal freedom for generations and can only serve as a fixed profession. For example, the music family in Shanxi has been compiled into music, and can only be engaged in singing and dancing for generations, and the generations serve the homesickness.

Another example is the inferior people in Zhejiang, who can only engage in humble careers. Men can only act as helpers in weddings. Women can only act as happy women and are prohibited from intermarriage with good people. There are also servants in the world who are servants of the wealthy people for generations. They have no personal freedom, they can only work hard and always work for others.

The reform of Yongzheng completely abolished this residue similar to slavery, guaranteed the interests of the people at the bottom, gave them the opportunity to re-do people, and had to say that it was a good thing to benefit the country and the people.


Fourth, being obscured by the bureaucratic class


The reform of Yongzheng directly abolished the head tax, and all of them will collect taxes according to the amount of land. This is a burden for the poor, but it harms the interests of the rich. Originally, it was only the tax of the landlord’s family who had no fame, but because of the bureaucratic integration of the grain at the same time, the result was equal to all of a sudden, and the wealthy bureaucrats lost two privileges. As a result, the literati are even more jealous of Yongzheng.

Although several reforms of Yongzheng benefited the bottom-level people and promoted social fairness, they offended all bureaucratic classes. Unfortunately, it is precisely these knowledgeable literati who grasp the pen and record history. On the one hand, they used the method of Tibetan poetry to sneer at the righteousness. On the one hand, they made great historical novels, ridiculed and cursed. The reason why Yongzheng opened the literary prison is actually a helpless move. You can't punish officials in the name of opposing reform. It is only necessary to treat people with such sinful crimes. In fact, if you think about it, you can launch it. The so-called anti-Qing Fuming of the literati is by no means the truth. When the Qing Dynasty entered the Qing Dynasty, they forced them to shave their clothes. They all recognized it and obeyed the rule of so many years. How suddenly they missed it. Is it coming? If you are so arrogant, you have already turned against it. For those literati, it is true that the anti-Qing dynasty is false. Dissatisfaction is weakening the bureaucratic privilege. They just use the Ming dynasty to express their dissatisfaction with Yongzheng.


The irony is that although the reforms of Yongzheng are the most beneficial to the people at the bottom, because the bottom level people's cultural level is low and they are not united, there is no big support, and there is no record of Yongzheng's reform. The bureaucratic class, as a knowledgeable class, always has the right to speak. In the later wild history and works of art, Yongzheng was either cut off by Lu Si Niang or killed by anger. In short, it is not good to die. The ignorant people continue to spread the lies made by the literati and regard Yongzheng as the biggest tyrant. A generation of rare people who took the lead in the reforms, the monarchs who carried out reforms were thrown into the rubbish by the ignorant people, and became the opposite of the emperor. I don’t know what it would be like to know what is under the name of Yongzheng.



On the other hand, although the reputation of Yongzheng was stinky, the Qing Dynasty continued for many years because of his reforms. When Yongzheng died, the country’s inventory of silver reached 60 million, and the Qing’s national strength was unprecedentedly strong. After Qianlong's succession, in addition to abolishing the bureaucrats, the other reforms were basically preserved, and the prosperous and populous populations in the middle and late Qing dynasty were also related to the policy of squatting into the acres. The results of the reforms estimated that the national strength of the Qing Dynasty had long since been defeated by Qianlong’s old man.

The experience that is being smeared tells us that for a person, an event must have its own judgment, and it must not be clouded or rushed. Otherwise, it can only kill people by malicious guidance and turn the great politician into no evil. The tyrant, and then become a laughing stalk of self-paralysis.




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